KEGG   DISEASE: Multiple sclerosis
H01490                      Disease                                
Multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss. This disease typically strikes young adults, especially women. There are four types of MS according to their relapsing or progressive pattern that include relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secondary progressive (SPMS), primary progressive (PPMS), and progressive relapsing (PRMS). In most patients, the disease has a relapsing-remitting course during the first years. Within 10 years, approximately 50% of patients progress to SPMS. The aetiology of MS is not well understood, but it is likely multifactorial, combining both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the literature on the risk factors for MS has grown substantially. They indicate that a combination of a genetic predisposition, exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, cigarette smoking, and reduced sunlight exposure/vitamin D levels is involved. Authorized first-line treatments are considered equally effective, and include interferon beta and glatiramer acetate. They are primarily directed against inflammation, and might fail to adequately control disease activity in some patients. In that case, it has been recommended to switch these patients early to a therapy of higher efficacy. Currently, 13 different drugs with ten different active components are licensed in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) for the treatment of MS.
Nervous system disease
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Nervous system diseases
  Other nervous and sensory system diseases
   H01490  Multiple sclerosis
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 08 Diseases of the nervous system
  Multiple sclerosis or other white matter disorders
   8A40  Multiple sclerosis
    H01490  Multiple sclerosis
hsa04514  Cell adhesion molecules
hsa04658  Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation
hsa04659  Th17 cell differentiation
hsa04612  Antigen processing and presentation
hsa04640  Hematopoietic cell lineage
(MS) PDCD1 [HSA:5133] [KO:K06744]
(MS) HLA-DRB1 [HSA:3123] [KO:K06752]
(MS) HLA-DQB1 [HSA:3119] [KO:K06752]
(MS5) TNFRSF1A [HSA:7132] [KO:K03158]
Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) [GN:T40079]
Triamcinolone acetonide [DR:D00983]
Dexamethasone [DR:D00292]
Hydrocortisone [DR:D00088]
Hydrocortisone sodium succinate [DR:D00978]
Prednisolone sodium phosphate [DR:D00981]
Prednisone [DR:D00473]
Methylprednisolone [DR:D00407]
Methylprednisolone sodium succinate [DR:D00751]
Methylprednisolone acetate [DR:D00979]
Corticotropin [DR:D00146]
Cladribine [DR:D01370]
Mitoxantrone hydrochloride [DR:D02166]
Ofatumumab [DR:D09314]
Interferon beta-1a [DR:D04554]
Interferon beta-1b [DR:D00746]
Peginterferon beta-1a [DR:D10483]
Glatiramer acetate [DR:D04318]
Natalizumab [DR:D06886]
Fingolimod hydrochloride [DR:D04187]
Teriflunomide [DR:D10172]
Alemtuzumab [DR:D02802]
Ocrelizumab [DR:D05218]
Ozanimod hydrochloride [DR:D10967]
Siponimod fumarate [DR:D11072]
Ponesimod [DR:D11215]
Daclizumab [DR:D03639]
Dimethyl fumarate [DR:D03846]
Diroximel fumarate [DR:D11154]
Baclofen [DR:D00241]
Dantrolene sodium [DR:D02274]
Dalfampridine [DR:D04127]
Monomethyl fumarate [DR:D11492]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 8A40
ICD-10: G35
MeSH: D009103
OMIM: 126200 614810
Milo R, Miller A
Revised diagnostic criteria of multiple sclerosis.
Autoimmun Rev 13:518-24 (2014)
McKay KA, Kwan V, Duggan T, Tremlett H
Risk factors associated with the onset of relapsing-remitting and primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.
Biomed Res Int 2015:817238 (2015)
Goris A, Pauwels I, Dubois B
Progress in multiple sclerosis genetics.
Curr Genomics 13:646-63 (2012)
PMID:15912506 (PDCD1)
Kroner A, Mehling M, Hemmer B, Rieckmann P, Toyka KV, Maurer M, Wiendl H
A PD-1 polymorphism is associated with disease progression in multiple sclerosis.
Ann Neurol 58:50-7 (2005)
PMID:14669136 (HLA-DRB1 HLA-DQB1)
Oksenberg JR, Barcellos LF, Cree BA, Baranzini SE, Bugawan TL, Khan O, Lincoln RR, Swerdlin A, Mignot E, Lin L, Goodin D, Erlich HA, Schmidt S, Thomson G, Reich DE, Pericak-Vance MA, Haines JL, Hauser SL
Mapping multiple sclerosis susceptibility to the HLA-DR locus in African Americans.
Am J Hum Genet 74:160-7 (2004)
PMID:22801493 (TNFRSF1A)
Gregory AP, Dendrou CA, Attfield KE, Haghikia A, Xifara DK, Butter F, Poschmann G, Kaur G, Lambert L, Leach OA, Promel S, Punwani D, Felce JH, Davis SJ, Gold R, Nielsen FC, Siegel RM, Mann M, Bell JI, McVean G, Fugger L
TNF receptor 1 genetic risk mirrors outcome of anti-TNF therapy in multiple sclerosis.
Nature 488:508-511 (2012)

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