KEGG   DISEASE: Multiple sclerosis
H01490                      Disease                                

Multiple sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss. This disease typically strikes young adults, especially women. There are four types of MS according to their relapsing or progressive pattern that include relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secondary progressive (SPMS), primary progressive (PPMS), and progressive relapsing (PRMS). In most patients, the disease has a relapsing-remitting course during the first years. Within 10 years, approximately 50% of patients progress to SPMS. The aetiology of MS is not well understood, but it is likely multifactorial, combining both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the literature on the risk factors for MS has grown substantially. They indicate that a combination of a genetic predisposition, exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, cigarette smoking, and reduced sunlight exposure/vitamin D levels is involved. Authorized first-line treatments are considered equally effective, and include interferon beta and glatiramer acetate. They are primarily directed against inflammation, and might fail to adequately control disease activity in some patients. In that case, it has been recommended to switch these patients early to a therapy of higher efficacy. Currently, 13 different drugs with ten different active components are licensed in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) for the treatment of MS.
Nervous system disease
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Nervous system diseases
  Other nervous and sensory system diseases
   H01490  Multiple sclerosis
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 08 Diseases of the nervous system
  Multiple sclerosis or other white matter disorders
   8A40  Multiple sclerosis
    H01490  Multiple sclerosis
hsa04514  Cell adhesion molecules
hsa04658  Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation
hsa04659  Th17 cell differentiation
hsa04612  Antigen processing and presentation
hsa04640  Hematopoietic cell lineage
PDCD1 [HSA:5133] [KO:K06744]
HLA-DRB1 [HSA:3123] [KO:K06752]
HLA-DQB1 [HSA:3119] [KO:K06752]
TNFRSF1A [HSA:7132] [KO:K03158]
Triamcinolone acetonide [DR:D00983]
Dexamethasone [DR:D00292]
Hydrocortisone [DR:D00088]
Hydrocortisone sodium succinate [DR:D00978]
Prednisolone sodium phosphate [DR:D00981]
Prednisone [DR:D00473]
Methylprednisolone [DR:D00407]
Methylprednisolone sodium succinate [DR:D00751]
Methylprednisolone acetate [DR:D00979]
Corticotropin [DR:D00146]
Cladribine [DR:D01370]
Mitoxantrone hydrochloride [DR:D02166]
Ofatumumab [DR:D09314]
Interferon beta-1a [DR:D04554]
Interferon beta-1b [DR:D00746]
Peginterferon beta-1a [DR:D10483]
Glatiramer acetate [DR:D04318]
Natalizumab [DR:D06886]
Fingolimod hydrochloride [DR:D04187]
Teriflunomide [DR:D10172]
Alemtuzumab [DR:D02802]
Ocrelizumab [DR:D05218]
Ozanimod hydrochloride [DR:D10967]
Siponimod fumarate [DR:D11072]
Daclizumab [DR:D03639]
Dimethyl fumarate [DR:D03846]
Baclofen [DR:D00241]
Dantrolene sodium [DR:D02274]
Dalfampridine [DR:D04127]
Diroximel fumarate [DR:D11154]
Ponesimod [DR:D11215]
Monomethyl fumarate [DR:D11492]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 8A40
ICD-10: G35
MeSH: D009103
OMIM: 126200 614810
Milo R, Miller A
Revised diagnostic criteria of multiple sclerosis.
Autoimmun Rev 13:518-24 (2014)
McKay KA, Kwan V, Duggan T, Tremlett H
Risk factors associated with the onset of relapsing-remitting and primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.
Biomed Res Int 2015:817238 (2015)
Goris A, Pauwels I, Dubois B
Progress in multiple sclerosis genetics.
Curr Genomics 13:646-63 (2012)
PMID:16945427 (marker)
Link H, Huang YM
Oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid: an update on methodology and clinical usefulness.
J Neuroimmunol 180:17-28 (2006)
PMID:26810535 (drug)
Rio J, Ruiz-Pena JL
Short-term suboptimal response criteria for predicting long-term non-response to first-line disease modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Neurol Sci 361:158-67 (2016)
PMID:25912246 (drug)
Dorr J, Paul F
The transition from first-line to second-line therapy in multiple sclerosis.
Curr Treat Options Neurol 17:354 (2015)

» Japanese version

DBGET integrated database retrieval system