KEGG   DISEASE: Major depressive disorder
H01646                      Disease                                
Major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disorder mainly characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest, feelings of worthlessness, and a high risk of suicide. Accumulated evidence suggests that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the etiology of MDD although the pathogenesis of MDD remains unknown. Mutations in genes involved in brain serotonin synthesis, have been identified in patients. Brain serotonin deficiency has been hypothesized to play a role in a wide range of psychiatric diseases, including MDD. Several efficacious treatments for MDD are available, including different forms of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. Recently, selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, SNRIs,) have become the first-line antidepressant drug treatment of depression and replaced tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) due to fewer side-effects and ease of use.
Mental and behavioural disorder
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 06 Mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders
  Mood disorders
   Depressive disorders
    6A70  Single episode depressive disorder
     H01646  Major depressive disorder
    6A71  Recurrent depressive disorder
     H01646  Major depressive disorder
Pathway-based classification of diseases [BR:br08402]
 Amino acid metabolism
  nt06028  Dopamine and serotonin metabolism
   H01646  Major depressive disorder
hsa00380  Tryptophan metabolism
nt06028 Dopamine and serotonin metabolism
TPH2 [HSA:121278] [KO:K00502]
HTR2A [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157]
FKBP5 [HSA:2289] [KO:K09571]
Selegiline [DR:D03731]
Aripiprazole [DR:D01164]
Brexpiprazole [DR:D10309]
Desipramine hydrochloride [DR:D00812]
Imipramine hydrochloride [DR:D00815]
Imipramine pamoate [DR:D08071]
Trimipramine maleate [DR:D02408]
Amitriptyline hydrochloride [DR:D00809]
Nortriptyline hydrochloride [DR:D00816]
Protriptyline hydrochloride [DR:D00484]
Amoxapine [DR:D00228]
Maprotiline hydrochloride [DR:D00818]
Fluoxetine hydrochloride [DR:D00823]
Citalopram hydrobromide [DR:D00822]
Paroxetine hydrochloride hemihydrate [DR:D02260]
Paroxetine hydrochloride [DR:D05374]
Paroxetine mesylate [DR:D05375]
Sertraline hydrochloride [DR:D00825]
Escitalopram oxalate [DR:D02567]
Isocarboxazid [DR:D02580]
Tranylcypromine sulfate [DR:D00826]
Trazodone hydrochloride [DR:D00820]
Nefazodone hydrochloride [DR:D00819]
Mirtazapine [DR:D00563]
Bupropion hydrochloride [DR:D00817]
Bupropion hydrobromide [DR:D07938]
Venlafaxine hydrochloride [DR:D00821]
Venlafaxine besylate monohydrate [DR:D12403]
Gepirone hydrochloride [DR:D04314]
Duloxetine hydrochloride [DR:D01179]
Desvenlafaxine [DR:D07793]
Desvenlafaxine succinate [DR:D02570]
Desvenlafaxine succinate anhydrous [DR:D11619]
Vilazodone hydrochloride [DR:D09699]
Vortioxetine hydrobromide [DR:D10185]
Levomilnacipran hydrochloride [DR:D10133]
Perphenazine and amitriptyline hydrochloride [DR:D10294]
Olanzapine and fluoxetine hydrochloride [DR:D10206]
Dextromethorphan hydrobromide and bupropion hydrochloride [DR:D12493]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 6A70 6A71
ICD-10: F32 F33
MeSH: D003863
OMIM: 608516
Hou Z, Song X, Jiang W, Yue Y, Yin Y, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Yuan Y
Prognostic value of imbalanced interhemispheric functional coordination in early therapeutic efficacy in major depressive disorder.
Psychiatry Res 255:1-8 (2016)
Sachs BD, Rodriguiz RM, Tran HL, Iyer A, Wetsel WC, Caron MG
Serotonin deficiency alters susceptibility to the long-term consequences of adverse early life experience.
Psychoneuroendocrinology 53:69-81 (2015)
Lin CX, Hu Z, Yan ZM, Li W, Chen YS, Zhao JH, Zhang LQ, Zhao B, Zhong WT, Feng D
Association between HTR2A T102C polymorphism and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis in the Chinese population.
Int J Clin Exp Med 8:20897-903 (2015)
Szczepankiewicz A, Leszczynska-Rodziewicz A, Pawlak J, Narozna B, Rajewska-Rager A, Wilkosc M, Zaremba D, Maciukiewicz M, Twarowska-Hauser J
FKBP5 polymorphism is associated with major depression but not with bipolar disorder.
J Affect Disord 164:33-7 (2014)
Zhang Y, Becker T, Ma Y, Koesters M
A systematic review of Chinese randomized clinical trials of SSRI treatment of depression.
BMC Psychiatry 14:245 (2014)
Cuijpers P, Sijbrandij M, Koole SL, Andersson G, Beekman AT, Reynolds CF 3rd
The efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in treating depressive and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons.
World Psychiatry 12:137-48 (2013)
Bruno A, Morabito P, Spina E, Muscatello MR
The Role of Levomilnacipran in the Management of Major Depressive Disorder: A Comprehensive Review.
Curr Neuropharmacol 14:191-9 (2016)

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