KEGG   PATHWAY: ko03320Help
ko03320                     Pathway                                

PPAR signaling pathway
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) showing different expression patterns in vertebrates. Each of them is encoded in a separate gene and binds fatty acids and eicosanoids. PPARalpha plays a role in the clearance of circulating or cellular lipids via the regulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. PPARbeta/delta is involved in lipid oxidation and cell proliferation. PPARgamma promotes adipocyte differentiation to enhance blood glucose uptake.
Organismal Systems; Endocrine system
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Pathway map
ko03320  PPAR signaling pathway

Ortholog table
H00151  Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis
H00154  Hyperlipoproteinemia, type I
H00157  Hyperlipoproteinemia, type V
H00407  Peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzyme deficiency
H00409  Type 2 diabetes mellitus
H00420  Familial partial lipodystrophy
H00874  Leukoencephalopathy with dystonia and motor neuropathy
H00930  Hypoalphalipoproteinemia
H00967  Adiponectin deficiency
H01108  CD36 deficiency
H01199  Hyperalphalipoproteinemia
H02013  Glycerol kinase deficiency
H02096  Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency
H02106  Genetic obesity
K06259  CD36 antigen
K08745  solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 1/4 [EC:6.2.1.-]
K08746  solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2 [EC:6.2.1.-]
K08748  solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 5 [EC:]
K08749  solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 6
K08750  fatty acid-binding protein 1, liver
K08751  fatty acid-binding protein 2, intestinal
K08752  fatty acid-binding protein 3, muscle and heart
K08753  fatty acid-binding protein 4, adipocyte
K08754  fatty acid-binding protein 5, epidermal
K08755  fatty acid-binding protein 6, ileal (gastrotropin)
K08756  fatty acid-binding protein 7, brain
K07294  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
K08524  retinoid X receptor alpha
K08525  retinoid X receptor beta
K08526  retinoid X receptor gamma
K04504  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
K08530  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
K01641  hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [EC:]
K08757  apolipoprotein A-I
K08758  apolipoprotein A-II
K08759  apolipoprotein C-III
K09025  apolipoprotein A-V
K08761  phospholipid transfer protein
K00029  malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating)(NADP+) [EC:]
K10226  acyl-CoA 6-desaturase (Delta-6 desaturase) [EC:]
K00507  stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Delta-9 desaturase) [EC:]
K00489  cholesterol 7alpha-monooxygenase [EC:]
K07431  sterol 12-alpha-hydroxylase [EC:]
K08536  liver X receptor alpha
K00488  cholestanetriol 26-monooxygenase [EC:]
K08762  diazepam-binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA-binding protein)
K01059  lipoprotein lipase [EC:]
K01897  long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase [EC:]
K15013  long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase ACSBG [EC:]
K08763  oxidised low-density lipoprotein receptor 1
K07514  enoyl-CoA hydratase / 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase / 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase [EC:]
K07425  long-chain fatty acid omega-monooxygenase [EC:]
K07513  acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 [EC:]
K08764  sterol carrier protein 2 [EC:]
K00232  acyl-CoA oxidase [EC:]
K10214  3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl-CoA 24-hydroxylase [EC:]
K08765  carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, liver isoform [EC:]
K19523  carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, muscle isoform [EC:]
K19524  carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, brain isoform [EC:]
K08766  carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 [EC:]
K00255  long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [EC:]
K00249  acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [EC:]
K08767  angiopoietin-like 4
K06086  sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1
K08768  perilipin-1
K17284  perilipin-2
K20254  perilipin-4
K20255  perilipin-5
K07296  adiponectin
K01388  matrix metalloproteinase-1 (interstitial collagenase) [EC:]
K08769  solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial uncoupling protein), member 7
K06272  integrin-linked kinase [EC:]
K06276  3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 [EC:]
K08770  ubiquitin C
K01596  phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) [EC:]
K00864  glycerol kinase [EC:]
K08771  aquaporin-7
C02165  Leukotriene B4
C14762  13(S)-HODE
C14767  9(S)-HODE
C14776  8(S)-HETE
C15493  9-cis-Retinoic acid
Takahashi N, Goto T, Kusudo T, Moriyama T, Kawada T.
[The structures and functions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)]
Nippon Rinsho 63:557-64 (2005)
Fujii H.
[PPARs-mediated intracellular signal transduction]
Nippon Rinsho 63:565-71 (2005)
Takada I, Kato S.
[PPARs target genes]
Nippon Rinsho 63:573-7 (2005)
Inoue H.
[Endogenous ligands for PPARs]
Nippon Rinsho 63:578-83 (2005)
Feige JN, Gelman L, Michalik L, Desvergne B, Wahli W.
From molecular action to physiological outputs: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors at the crossroads of key cellular functions.
Prog Lipid Res 45:120-59 (2006)
Desvergne B, Michalik L, Wahli W.
Transcriptional regulation of metabolism.
Physiol Rev 86:465-514 (2006)
Mandard S, Muller M, Kersten S.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes.
Cell Mol Life Sci 61:393-416 (2004)
Desvergne B, Wahli W.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism.
Endocr Rev 20:649-88 (1999)
Savage DB.
PPARgamma as a metabolic regulator: insights from genomics and pharmacology.
Expert Rev Mol Med 2005:1-16 (2005)
Semple RK, Chatterjee VK, O'Rahilly S.
PPAR gamma and human metabolic disease.
J Clin Invest 116:581-9 (2006)
Lehrke M, Lazar MA.
The many faces of PPARgamma.
Cell 123:993-9 (2005)
Hauner H.
The mode of action of thiazolidinediones.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev 18 Suppl 2:S10-5 (2002)
ko00071  Fatty acid degradation
ko00072  Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
ko00120  Primary bile acid biosynthesis
ko00564  Glycerophospholipid metabolism
ko04920  Adipocytokine signaling pathway
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