KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04927
Entry
ko04927                     Pathway                                

Name
Cortisol synthesis and secretion
Description
Cortisol is the main endogenous glucocorticoid, which affects a plethora of physiological functions, e.g., lipid and glucose metabolism, metabolic homeostasis and adaptation to stress. Cortisol production is primarily regulated by corticotropin (ACTH) in zona fasciculata. The stimulatory effect of ACTH on cortisol synthesis depends on cAMP dependent signaling, but also involves membrane depolarization and increased cytosolic Ca2+. Each of cAMP and Ca2+ induces the expression of StAR, stimulating intramitochondrial cholesterol transfer, as well as the steroidogenic enzymes in the pathway from cholesterol to cortisol (e.g., CHE, CYP17A1, CYP11B1).
Class
Organismal Systems; Endocrine system
Pathway map
ko04927  Cortisol synthesis and secretion
ko04927

Disease
H02316  Adrenal insufficiency, NR5A1 related
Other DBs
GO: 0043400
Orthology
K05228  proopiomelanocortin
K04200  melanocortin 2 receptor
K22398  melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein
K04632  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha
K08041  adenylate cyclase 1 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08042  adenylate cyclase 2 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08043  adenylate cyclase 3 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08044  adenylate cyclase 4 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08045  adenylate cyclase 5 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08046  adenylate cyclase 6 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08047  adenylate cyclase 7 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08048  adenylate cyclase 8 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08049  adenylate cyclase 9 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K18437  high affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8 [EC:3.1.4.53]
K04345  protein kinase A [EC:2.7.11.11]
K08562  nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1
K08560  steroidogenic factor 1
K04465  nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1
K04684  transcription factor Sp1
K09355  pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1
K05870  cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1
K04450  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
K04374  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4
K09048  cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3
K09047  cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 5
K09049  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 beta
K00497  steroid 11beta-monooxygenase [EC:1.14.15.4]
K00512  steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase / 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone deacetylase [EC:1.14.14.19 1.14.14.32]
K16931  steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, mitochondrial
K14349  neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 [EC:3.1.1.-]
K09821  angiotensinogen
K04166  angiotensin II receptor type 1
K04634  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha
K04635  guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11
K05858  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, beta [EC:3.1.4.11]
K04958  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 1
K04959  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 2
K04960  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 3
K04913  potassium channel subfamily K member 2
K04854  voltage-dependent calcium channel T type alpha-1G
K04855  voltage-dependent calcium channel T type alpha-1H
K04856  voltage-dependent calcium channel T type alpha-1I
K04850  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1C
K04851  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1D
K04853  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1F
K04857  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1S
K16056  calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1
K04877  potassium voltage-gated channel Shaker-related subfamily A member 4
K04914  potassium channel subfamily K member 3
K12473  low-density lipoprotein receptor
K13885  scavenger receptor class B, member 1
K00498  cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) [EC:1.14.15.6]
K00070  3beta-hydroxy-Delta5-steroid dehydrogenase / steroid Delta-isomerase [EC:1.1.1.145 5.3.3.1]
K00513  steroid 21-monooxygenase [EC:1.14.14.16]
Compound
C00020  AMP
C00076  Calcium cation
C00187  Cholesterol
C00238  Potassium cation
C00410  Progesterone
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00735  Cortisol
C01176  17alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01953  Pregnenolone
C05138  17alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone
C05488  11-Deoxycortisol
Reference
  Authors
Gallo-Payet N, Battista MC
  Title
Steroidogenesis-adrenal cell signal transduction.
  Journal
Compr Physiol 4:889-964 (2014)
DOI:10.1002/cphy.c130050
Reference
  Authors
Enyeart JJ
  Title
Biochemical and Ionic signaling mechanisms for ACTH-stimulated cortisol production.
  Journal
Vitam Horm 70:265-79 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/S0083-6729(05)70008-X
Reference
  Authors
Bandulik S, Tauber P, Lalli E, Barhanin J, Warth R
  Title
Two-pore domain potassium channels in the adrenal cortex.
  Journal
Pflugers Arch 467:1027-42 (2015)
DOI:10.1007/s00424-014-1628-6
Reference
  Authors
Liu H, Enyeart JA, Enyeart JJ
  Title
Angiotensin II inhibits native bTREK-1 K+ channels through a PLC-, kinase C-, and PIP2-independent pathway requiring ATP hydrolysis.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 293:C682-95 (2007)
DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.00087.2007
Reference
  Authors
Enyeart JJ, Danthi SJ, Liu H, Enyeart JA
  Title
Angiotensin II inhibits bTREK-1 K+ channels in adrenocortical cells by separate Ca2+- and ATP hydrolysis-dependent mechanisms.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:30814-28 (2005)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M504283200
Reference
  Authors
Shen WJ, Azhar S, Kraemer FB
  Title
ACTH Regulation of Adrenal SR-B1.
  Journal
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 7:42 (2016)
DOI:10.3389/fendo.2016.00042
Reference
  Authors
Ruggiero C, Lalli E
  Title
Impact of ACTH Signaling on Transcriptional Regulation of Steroidogenic Genes.
  Journal
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 7:24 (2016)
DOI:10.3389/fendo.2016.00024
Reference
  Authors
Margioris AN, Tsatsanis C
  Title
ACTH Action on the Adrenals
  Journal
Endotext (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Spiga F, Lightman SL
  Title
Dynamics of adrenal glucocorticoid steroidogenesis in health and disease.
  Journal
Mol Cell Endocrinol 408:227-34 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2015.02.005
Reference
  Authors
Tsai LC, Beavo JA
  Title
The roles of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in steroidogenesis.
  Journal
Curr Opin Pharmacol 11:670-5 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.coph.2011.09.003
Reference
  Authors
Odermatt A, Strajhar P, Engeli RT
  Title
Disruption of steroidogenesis: Cell models for mechanistic investigations and as screening tools.
  Journal
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 158:9-21 (2016)
DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.01.009
Reference
  Authors
Manna PR, Stetson CL, Slominski AT, Pruitt K
  Title
Role of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in health and disease.
  Journal
Endocrine 51:7-21 (2016)
DOI:10.1007/s12020-015-0715-6
Reference
  Authors
Jackson DS, Ramachandrappa S, Clark AJ, Chan LF
  Title
Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity.
  Journal
Front Neurosci 9:213 (2015)
DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00213
Reference
  Authors
Cerda-Reverter JM, Agulleiro MJ, Cortes R, Sanchez E, Guillot R, Leal E, Fernandez-Duran B, Puchol S, Eley M
  Title
Involvement of melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) in the function of melanocortin receptors.
  Journal
Gen Comp Endocrinol 188:133-6 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2013.01.017
Reference
  Authors
Enyeart JJ, Enyeart JA
  Title
Ca2+ and K+ channels of normal human adrenal zona fasciculata cells: properties and modulation by ACTH and AngII.
  Journal
J Gen Physiol 142:137-55 (2013)
DOI:10.1085/jgp.201310964
Reference
  Authors
Midzak A, Papadopoulos V
  Title
Adrenal Mitochondria and Steroidogenesis: From Individual Proteins to Functional Protein Assemblies.
  Journal
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 7:106 (2016)
DOI:10.3389/fendo.2016.00106
Reference
  Authors
Calebiro D, Di Dalmazi G, Bathon K, Ronchi CL, Beuschlein F
  Title
cAMP signaling in cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma.
  Journal
Eur J Endocrinol 173:M99-106 (2015)
DOI:10.1530/EJE-15-0353
Reference
  Authors
Turcu AF, Auchus RJ
  Title
Adrenal steroidogenesis and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  Journal
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 44:275-96 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/j.ecl.2015.02.002
Related
pathway
ko00140  Steroid hormone biosynthesis
ko04020  Calcium signaling pathway
ko04024  cAMP signaling pathway
ko04960  Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption
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