Autophagy - animal
Autophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and exquisitely regulated. This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation. Autophagy is regulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation and ER stress. Constitutive level of autophagy plays an important role in cellular homeostasis and maintains quality control of essential cellular components.
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
Pathway map Ortholog table
K16172 insulin receptor substrate 1
K07187 insulin receptor substrate 2
K17445 insulin receptor substrate 3
K17446 insulin receptor substrate 4
K00922 phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha/beta/delta [EC: 126.96.36.199]
K02649 phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha/beta/delta
K07831 Ras-related protein M-Ras
K07829 Ras-related protein R-Ras
K07830 Ras-related protein R-Ras2
K04366 RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC: 188.8.131.52]
K08268 hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha
K08270 DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4
K15464 BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3
K07208 Ras homolog enriched in brain
K07204 regulatory associated protein of mTOR
K20402 DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein
K16184 proline-rich AKT1 substrate 1
K08266 target of rapamycin complex subunit LST8
K17606 immunoglobulin-binding protein 1
K04382 serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit [EC: 184.108.40.206]
K08331 autophagy-related protein 13
K19730 autophagy-related protein 101
K17589 RB1-inducible coiled-coil protein 1
K17906 autophagy-related protein 2
K17908 autophagy-related protein 18
K22991 WD repeat-containing protein 45
K17907 autophagy-related protein 9
K21245 transcription factor SPT20 homolog
K23611 guanine nucleotide exchange protein SMCR8
K23610 WD repeat-containing protein 41
K23609 guanine nucleotide exchange protein C9orf72
K07901 Ras-related protein Rab-8A
K07925 Ras-related protein Rab-39B
K12650 TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa-B activator
K07874 Ras-related protein Rab-1A
K16185 Ras-related GTP-binding protein A/B
K16186 Ras-related GTP-binding protein C/D
K07198 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, catalytic alpha subunit [EC: 220.127.116.11]
K04440 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8/9/10 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) [EC: 18.104.22.168]
K02161 apoptosis regulator Bcl-2
K04570 Bcl-2-like 1 (apoptosis regulator Bcl-X)
K02158 Bcl-2-antagonist of cell death
K21246 nuclear receptor-binding factor 2
K17889 beclin 1-associated autophagy-related key regulator
K17985 activating molecule in BECN1-regulated autophagy protein 1
K21247 tumor protein p53-inducible nuclear protein 2
K21248 vacuole membrane protein 1
K21249 UV radiation resistance-associated gene protein
K19330 run domain Beclin-1 interacting and cysteine-rich containing protein
K08852 serine/threonine-protein kinase/endoribonuclease IRE1 [EC: 22.214.171.124 3.1.26.-]
K04958 inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 1
K10802 high mobility group protein B1
K21250 proline-rich acidic protein 1
K08860 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 [EC: 126.96.36.199]
K16196 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 4 [EC: 188.8.131.52]
K03237 translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1
K17603 zinc finger FYVE domain-containing protein 1
K08336 ubiquitin-like protein ATG12
K08339 autophagy-related protein 5
K17890 autophagy-related protein 16-1
K20868 autophagy-related protein 16-2
K08337 ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme ATG7
K17888 ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG10
K08343 ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG3
K04724 CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator
K07920 Ras-related protein Rab-33B
K08341 GABA(A) receptor-associated protein
K10435 microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain
K08342 cysteine protease ATG4 [EC:3.4.22.-]
K17987 next to BRCA1 gene 1 protein
K21348 calcium-binding and coiled-coil domain-containing protein 2
K22262 WD repeat and FYVE domain-containing protein 3
K02927 ubiquitin-large subunit ribosomal protein L40e
K02977 ubiquitin-small subunit ribosomal protein S27Ae
K08509 synaptosomal-associated protein 29
K08512 vesicle-associated membrane protein 8
K08516 synaptobrevin homolog YKT6
K23883 ectopic P granules protein 5
K23282 pleckstrin homology domain-containing family M member 1
K20179 vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 11
K20180 vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 16
K20181 vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 18
K20182 vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 33A
K20183 Vam6/Vps39-like protein vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 39
K20184 vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 41
K10586 baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 6 (apollon) [EC: 184.108.40.206]
K26797 golgi reassembly-stacking protein
K07897 Ras-related protein Rab-7A
K07898 Ras-related protein Rab-7B
K06528 lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1/2
C04549 1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
Meijer AJ, Codogno P.
Regulation and role of autophagy in mammalian cells.
Autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity.
Levine B, Yuan J.
Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict?
Tanida I, Ueno T, Kominami E.
LC3 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy.
Lum JJ, DeBerardinis RJ, Thompson CB.
Autophagy in metazoans: cell survival in the land of plenty.
Reggiori F, Klionsky DJ.
Autophagosomes: biogenesis from scratch?
Klionsky DJ, Emr SD.
Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation.
Bechet D, Tassa A, Taillandier D, Combaret L, Attaix D.
Lysosomal proteolysis in skeletal muscle.
He C, Klionsky DJ
Regulation mechanisms and signaling pathways of autophagy.
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
An overview of the molecular mechanism of autophagy.
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
Mammalian autophagy: core molecular machinery and signaling regulation.
Chen Y, Klionsky DJ
The regulation of autophagy - unanswered questions.
Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y
The role of Atg proteins in autophagosome formation.
Russell RC, Yuan HX, Guan KL
Autophagy regulation by nutrient signaling.
Noda NN, Fujioka Y
Atg1 family kinases in autophagy initiation.
ko04141 Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
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