KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04140
Entry
ko04140                     Pathway                                

Name
Autophagy - animal
Description
Autophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and exquisitely regulated. This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation. Autophagy is regulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation and ER stress. Constitutive level of autophagy plays an important role in cellular homeostasis and maintains quality control of essential cellular components.
Class
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
Pathway map
ko04140  Autophagy - animal
ko04140

Disease
H00286  Crohn disease
H01227  Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
H02279  Cathepsin D deficiency
Other DBs
GO: 0006914
Orthology
K04526  insulin
K05087  insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K16172  insulin receptor substrate 1
K07187  insulin receptor substrate 2
K17445  insulin receptor substrate 3
K17446  insulin receptor substrate 4
K00922  phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha/beta/delta [EC:2.7.1.153]
K02649  phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha/beta/delta
K06276  3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04456  RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K01110  phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN [EC:3.1.3.16 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.67]
K02833  GTPase HRas
K07827  GTPase KRas
K07828  GTPase NRas
K07831  Ras-related protein M-Ras
K07829  Ras-related protein R-Ras
K07830  Ras-related protein R-Ras2
K04366  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04368  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04369  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04371  mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:2.7.11.24]
K08268  hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha
K08270  DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4
K07207  tuberous sclerosis 2
K07206  tuberous sclerosis 1
K15464  BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3
K07208  Ras homolog enriched in brain
K07204  regulatory associated protein of mTOR
K20402  DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein
K07203  serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [EC:2.7.11.1]
K16184  proline-rich AKT1 substrate 1
K08266  target of rapamycin complex subunit LST8
K04688  ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta [EC:2.7.11.1]
K17606  immunoglobulin-binding protein 1
K04382  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit [EC:3.1.3.16]
K21357  serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK1 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K08269  serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK2 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K08331  autophagy-related protein 13
K19730  autophagy-related protein 101
K17589  RB1-inducible coiled-coil protein 1
K17906  autophagy-related protein 2
K17908  autophagy-related protein 18
K17907  autophagy-related protein 9
K21245  transcription factor SPT20 homolog
K23611  guanine nucleotide exchange protein SMCR8
K23610  WD repeat-containing protein 41
K23609  guanine nucleotide exchange protein C9orf72
K07901  Ras-related protein Rab-8A
K07925  Ras-related protein Rab-39B
K14381  sequestosome 1
K05410  TANK-binding kinase 1 [EC:2.7.11.10]
K12650  TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa-B activator
K07874  Ras-related protein Rab-1A
K16185  Ras-related GTP-binding protein A/B
K16186  Ras-related GTP-binding protein C/D
K07298  serine/threonine-protein kinase 11 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K07198  5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, catalytic alpha subunit [EC:2.7.11.11]
K04345  protein kinase A [EC:2.7.11.11]
K06068  novel protein kinase C delta type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K04440  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8/9/10 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) [EC:2.7.11.24]
K02161  apoptosis regulator Bcl-2
K04570  Bcl-2-like 1 (apoptosis regulator Bcl-X)
K02158  Bcl-2-antagonist of cell death
K08334  beclin
K21246  nuclear receptor-binding factor 2
K08333  phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 4 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K00914  phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [EC:2.7.1.137]
K17889  beclin 1-associated autophagy-related key regulator
K17985  activating molecule in BECN1-regulated autophagy protein 1
K03175  TNF receptor-associated factor 6 [EC:2.3.2.27]
K21247  tumor protein p53-inducible nuclear protein 2
K21248  vacuole membrane protein 1
K08491  syntaxin 17
K21249  UV radiation resistance-associated gene protein
K11248  endophilin-B1
K19330  run domain Beclin-1 interacting and cysteine-rich containing protein
K07359  calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:2.7.11.17]
K04427  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 [EC:2.7.11.25]
K08852  serine/threonine-protein kinase/endoribonuclease IRE1 [EC:2.7.11.1 3.1.26.-]
K04958  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 1
K08803  death-associated protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K10802  high mobility group protein B1
K21250  proline-rich acidic protein 1
K08860  eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K16196  eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 4 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K03237  translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1
K18082  myotubularin-related protein 3/4 [EC:3.1.3.48 3.1.3.64 3.1.3.95]
K18086  myotubularin-related protein 14 [EC:3.1.3.64 3.1.3.95]
K17603  zinc finger FYVE domain-containing protein 1
K08336  ubiquitin-like protein ATG12
K08339  autophagy-related protein 5
K17890  autophagy-related protein 16-1
K20868  autophagy-related protein 16-2
K08337  ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme ATG7
K17888  ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG10
K08343  ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG3
K04724  CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator
K07920  Ras-related protein Rab-33B
K18052  novel protein kinase C theta type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K08341  GABA(A) receptor-associated protein
K08342  cysteine protease ATG4 [EC:3.4.22.-]
K06528  lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1/2
K07897  Ras-related protein Rab-7A
K07898  Ras-related protein Rab-7B
K08512  vesicle-associated membrane protein 8
K08509  synaptosomal-associated protein 29
K01379  cathepsin D [EC:3.4.23.5]
K01365  cathepsin L [EC:3.4.22.15]
K01363  cathepsin B [EC:3.4.22.1]
Compound
C00035  GDP
C00044  GTP
C00350  Phosphatidylethanolamine
C01194  1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol
C04549  1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Meijer AJ, Codogno P.
  Title
Regulation and role of autophagy in mammalian cells.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2445-62 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2004.02.002
Reference
  Authors
Deretic V.
  Title
Autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity.
  Journal
Trends Immunol 26:523-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.it.2005.08.003
Reference
  Authors
Levine B, Yuan J.
  Title
Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict?
  Journal
J Clin Invest 115:2679-88 (2005)
DOI:10.1172/JCI26390
Reference
  Authors
Tanida I, Ueno T, Kominami E.
  Title
LC3 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2503-18 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2004.05.009
Reference
  Authors
Lum JJ, DeBerardinis RJ, Thompson CB.
  Title
Autophagy in metazoans: cell survival in the land of plenty.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:439-48 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrm1660
Reference
  Authors
Reggiori F, Klionsky DJ.
  Title
Autophagosomes: biogenesis from scratch?
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 17:415-22 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2005.06.007
Reference
  Authors
Klionsky DJ, Emr SD.
  Title
Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation.
  Journal
Science 290:1717-21 (2000)
DOI:10.1126/science.290.5497.1717
Reference
  Authors
Bechet D, Tassa A, Taillandier D, Combaret L, Attaix D.
  Title
Lysosomal proteolysis in skeletal muscle.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37:2098-114 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.02.029
Reference
  Authors
He C, Klionsky DJ
  Title
Regulation mechanisms and signaling pathways of autophagy.
  Journal
Annu Rev Genet 43:67-93 (2009)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-genet-102808-114910
Reference
  Authors
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
  Title
An overview of the molecular mechanism of autophagy.
  Journal
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 335:1-32 (2009)
DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-00302-8_1
Reference
  Authors
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
  Title
Mammalian autophagy: core molecular machinery and signaling regulation.
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 22:124-31 (2010)
DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2009.11.014
Reference
  Authors
Chen Y, Klionsky DJ
  Title
The regulation of autophagy - unanswered questions.
  Journal
J Cell Sci 124:161-70 (2011)
DOI:10.1242/jcs.064576
Reference
  Authors
Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y
  Title
The role of Atg proteins in autophagosome formation.
  Journal
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 27:107-32 (2011)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-cellbio-092910-154005
Reference
  Authors
Russell RC, Yuan HX, Guan KL
  Title
Autophagy regulation by nutrient signaling.
  Journal
Cell Res 24:42-57 (2014)
DOI:10.1038/cr.2013.166
Reference
  Authors
Noda NN, Fujioka Y
  Title
Atg1 family kinases in autophagy initiation.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 72:3083-96 (2015)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-015-1917-z
Related
pathway
ko04010  MAPK signaling pathway
ko04141  Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
ko04142  Lysosome
ko04150  mTOR signaling pathway
ko04152  AMPK signaling pathway
ko04910  Insulin signaling pathway
LinkDB

DBGET integrated database retrieval system