KEGG   DISEASE: Rheumatoid arthritis
H00630                      Disease                                
Rheumatoid arthritis
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) [DS:H01672]
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease that primarily manifests as chronic inflammatory arthropathy. Persistent synovitis leads to cartilage destruction, bone erosions and periarticular decalcification, subsequently resulting in impaired joint function. It is more common between the ages of 35 and 50 years, affecting three times more women than men. Susceptibility to RA is genetically determined with multiple genes contributing. Inheritance of HLA DRB1 alleles encoding a distinctive five-amino-acid sequence known as the "shared epitope" (SE) is the best characterized genetic risk factor. The mechanism by which the SE alleles contribute to the development of RA is not very clear. It has been postulated that the presence of these conserved sequences in the antigen-binding groove alters the way antigenic peptides are bound to and presented to T-cell lymphocytes. This, in turn, may trigger abnormal immune responses and lead to RA.
Immune system disease
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 15 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system or connective tissue
   Inflammatory arthropathies
    FA20  Rheumatoid arthritis
     H00630  Rheumatoid arthritis
Pathway-based classification of diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cellular process
  nt06535  Efferocytosis
   H00630  Rheumatoid arthritis
hsa05323  Rheumatoid arthritis
hsa04612  Antigen processing and presentation
hsa04620  Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
hsa04625  C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway
hsa04659  Th17 cell differentiation
nt06535 Efferocytosis
HLA-DRB1 [HSA:3123] [KO:K06752]
PTPN22 [HSA:26191] [KO:K18024]
CIITA [HSA:4261] [KO:K08060]
CD244 [HSA:51744] [KO:K06582]
SLC22A4 [HSA:6583] [KO:K08202]
IRF5 [HSA:3663] [KO:K09446]
NFKBIL1 [HSA:4795] [KO:K09256]
IL10 [HSA:3586] [KO:K05443]
(JIA) IL6 [HSA:3569] [KO:K05405]
(JIA) MIF [HSA:4282] [KO:K07253]
Triamcinolone acetonide [DR:D00983]
Dexamethasone [DR:D00292]
Dexamethasone sodium phosphate [DR:D00975]
Hydrocortisone [DR:D00088]
Hydrocortisone sodium succinate [DR:D00978]
Prednisolone [DR:D00472]
Prednisolone sodium phosphate [DR:D00981]
Prednisone [DR:D00473]
Sulfasalazine [DR:D00448]
Indomethacin [DR:D00141]
Methylprednisolone [DR:D00407]
Methylprednisolone sodium succinate [DR:D00751]
Methylprednisolone acetate [DR:D00979]
Naproxen [DR:D00118]
Naproxen sodium [DR:D00970]
Corticotropin [DR:D00146]
Cortisone acetate [DR:D00973]
Methotrexate [DR:D00142]
Methotrexate sodium [DR:D02115]
Rituximab [DR:D02994]
Celecoxib [DR:D00567]
Abatacept [DR:D03203]
Etanercept [DR:D00742]
Infliximab [DR:D02598]
Adalimumab [DR:D02597]
Certolizumab pegol [DR:D03441]
Golimumab [DR:D04358]
Anakinra [DR:D02934]
Tocilizumab [DR:D02596]
Sarilumab [DR:D10161]
Cyclosporine [DR:D00184]
Tofacitinib citrate [DR:D09783]
Baricitinib [DR:D10308]
Upadacitinib hydrate [DR:D11048]
Leflunomide [DR:D00749]
Azathioprine [DR:D00238]
Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol [DR:D11091]
Piroxicam [DR:D00127]
Fenoprofen calcium [DR:D00968]
Flurbiprofen [DR:D00330]
Oxaprozin [DR:D00463]
Ibuprofen and famotidine [DR:D11575]
Naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium [DR:D11576]
Meclofenamate sodium [DR:D00169]
Auranofin [DR:D00237]
Salsalate [DR:D00428]
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [DR:D02114]
Lobenzarit sodium [DR:D01808]
Other DBs
ICD-11: FA20
ICD-10: M05
MeSH: D001172
OMIM: 180300 604302
Chung IM, Ketharnathan S, Thiruvengadam M, Rajakumar G
Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Stride from Research to Clinical Practice.
Int J Mol Sci 17:E900 (2016)
Boissier MC, Semerano L, Challal S, Saidenberg-Kermanac'h N, Falgarone G
Rheumatoid arthritis: from autoimmunity to synovitis and joint destruction.
J Autoimmun 39:222-8 (2012)
Tokuhiro S, Yamada R, Chang X, Suzuki A, Kochi Y, Sawada T, Suzuki M, Nagasaki M, Ohtsuki M, Ono M, Furukawa H, Nagashima M, Yoshino S, Mabuchi A, Sekine A, Saito S, Takahashi A, Tsunoda T, Nakamura Y, Yamamoto K
An intronic SNP in a RUNX1 binding site of SLC22A4, encoding an organic cation transporter, is associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
Nat Genet 35:341-8 (2003)
Dawidowicz K, Allanore Y, Guedj M, Pierlot C, Bombardieri S, Balsa A, Westhovens R, Barrera P, Alves H, Teixeira VH, Petit-Teixeira E, van de Putte L, van Riel P, Prum B, Bardin T, Meyer O, Cornelis F, Dieude P
The interferon regulatory factor 5 gene confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and influences its erosive phenotype.
Ann Rheum Dis 70:117-21 (2011)
Begovich AB, Carlton VE, Honigberg LA, Schrodi SJ, Chokkalingam AP, Alexander HC, Ardlie KG, Huang Q, Smith AM, Spoerke JM, Conn MT, Chang M, Chang SY, Saiki RK, Catanese JJ, Leong DU, Garcia VE, McAllister LB, Jeffery DA, Lee AT, Batliwalla F, Remmers E, Criswell LA, Seldin MF, Kastner DL, Amos CI, Sninsky JJ, Gregersen PK
A missense single-nucleotide polymorphism in a gene encoding a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) is associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
Am J Hum Genet 75:330-7 (2004)
Marinou I, Healy J, Mewar D, Moore DJ, Dickson MC, Binks MH, Montgomery DS, Walters K, Wilson AG
Association of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 genotypes with radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis is dependent on autoantibody status.
Arthritis Rheum 56:2549-56 (2007)
Swanberg M, Lidman O, Padyukov L, Eriksson P, Akesson E, Jagodic M, Lobell A, Khademi M, Borjesson O, Lindgren CM, Lundman P, Brookes AJ, Kere J, Luthman H, Alfredsson L, Hillert J, Klareskog L, Hamsten A, Piehl F, Olsson T
MHC2TA is associated with differential MHC molecule expression and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and myocardial infarction.
Nat Genet 37:486-94 (2005)
Okamoto K, Makino S, Yoshikawa Y, Takaki A, Nagatsuka Y, Ota M, Tamiya G, Kimura A, Bahram S, Inoko H
Identification of I kappa BL as the second major histocompatibility complex-linked susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis.
Am J Hum Genet 72:303-12 (2003)
Suzuki A, Yamada R, Kochi Y, Sawada T, Okada Y, Matsuda K, Kamatani Y, Mori M, Shimane K, Hirabayashi Y, Takahashi A, Tsunoda T, Miyatake A, Kubo M, Kamatani N, Nakamura Y, Yamamoto K
Functional SNPs in CD244 increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in a Japanese population.
Nat Genet 40:1224-9 (2008)

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