KEGG   DISEASE: Rheumatoid arthritis
Entry
H00630                      Disease                                
Name
Rheumatoid arthritis
  Subgroup
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) [DS:H01672]
Description
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease that primarily manifests as chronic inflammatory arthropathy. Persistent synovitis leads to cartilage destruction, bone erosions and periarticular decalcification, subsequently resulting in impaired joint function. It is more common between the ages of 35 and 50 years, affecting three times more women than men. Susceptibility to RA is genetically determined with multiple genes contributing. Inheritance of HLA DRB1 alleles encoding a distinctive five-amino-acid sequence known as the "shared epitope" (SE) is the best characterized genetic risk factor. The mechanism by which the SE alleles contribute to the development of RA is not very clear. It has been postulated that the presence of these conserved sequences in the antigen-binding groove alters the way antigenic peptides are bound to and presented to T-cell lymphocytes. This, in turn, may trigger abnormal immune responses and lead to RA.
Category
Immune system disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Immune system diseases
  Allergies and autoimmune diseases
   H00630  Rheumatoid arthritis
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 15 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system or connective tissue
  Arthropathies
   Inflammatory arthropathies
    FA20  Rheumatoid arthritis
     H00630  Rheumatoid arthritis
Pathway
hsa05323  Rheumatoid arthritis
Related
pathway
hsa04612 Antigen processing and presentation   
hsa04620 Toll-like receptor signaling pathway   
hsa04625 C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway   
hsa04659 Th17 cell differentiation   
Gene
HLA-DRB1 [HSA:3123] [KO:K06752]
PTPN22 [HSA:26191] [KO:K18024]
CIITA [HSA:4261] [KO:K08060]
CD244 [HSA:51744] [KO:K06582]
SLC22A4 [HSA:6583] [KO:K08202]
IRF5 [HSA:3663] [KO:K09446]
NFKBIL1 [HSA:4795] [KO:K09256]
IL10 [HSA:3586] [KO:K05443]
(JIA) IL6 [HSA:3569] [KO:K05405]
(JIA) MIF [HSA:4282] [KO:K07253]
Drug
Triamcinolone acetonide [DR:D00983]
Dexamethasone [DR:D00292]
Dexamethasone sodium phosphate [DR:D00975]
Hydrocortisone [DR:D00088]
Hydrocortisone sodium succinate [DR:D00978]
Prednisolone [DR:D00472]
Prednisolone sodium phosphate [DR:D00981]
Prednisone [DR:D00473]
Sulfasalazine [DR:D00448]
Indomethacin [DR:D00141]
Methylprednisolone [DR:D00407]
Methylprednisolone sodium succinate [DR:D00751]
Methylprednisolone acetate [DR:D00979]
Naproxen [DR:D00118]
Naproxen sodium [DR:D00970]
Corticotropin [DR:D00146]
Cortisone acetate [DR:D00973]
Methotrexate [DR:D00142]
Methotrexate sodium [DR:D02115]
Rituximab [DR:D02994]
Celecoxib [DR:D00567]
Leflunomide [DR:D00749]
Abatacept [DR:D03203]
Tofacitinib citrate [DR:D09783]
Baricitinib [DR:D10308]
Upadacitinib hydrate [DR:D11048]
Etanercept [DR:D00742]
Infliximab [DR:D02598]
Adalimumab [DR:D02597]
Certolizumab pegol [DR:D03441]
Golimumab [DR:D04358]
Anakinra [DR:D02934]
Tocilizumab [DR:D02596]
Sarilumab [DR:D10161]
Cyclosporine [DR:D00184]
Azathioprine [DR:D00238]
Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol [DR:D11091]
Piroxicam [DR:D00127]
Fenoprofen calcium [DR:D00968]
Flurbiprofen [DR:D00330]
Oxaprozin [DR:D00463]
Ibuprofen and famotidine [DR:D11575]
Naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium [DR:D11576]
Meclofenamate sodium [DR:D00169]
Auranofin [DR:D00237]
Salsalate [DR:D00428]
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [DR:D02114]
Lobenzarit sodium [DR:D01808]
Other DBs
ICD-11: FA20
ICD-10: M05
MeSH: D001172
OMIM: 180300 604302
Reference
  Authors
Chung IM, Ketharnathan S, Thiruvengadam M, Rajakumar G
  Title
Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Stride from Research to Clinical Practice.
  Journal
Int J Mol Sci 17:E900 (2016)
DOI:10.3390/ijms17060900
Reference
  Authors
Boissier MC, Semerano L, Challal S, Saidenberg-Kermanac'h N, Falgarone G
  Title
Rheumatoid arthritis: from autoimmunity to synovitis and joint destruction.
  Journal
J Autoimmun 39:222-8 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/j.jaut.2012.05.021
Reference
  Authors
Tokuhiro S, Yamada R, Chang X, Suzuki A, Kochi Y, Sawada T, Suzuki M, Nagasaki M, Ohtsuki M, Ono M, Furukawa H, Nagashima M, Yoshino S, Mabuchi A, Sekine A, Saito S, Takahashi A, Tsunoda T, Nakamura Y, Yamamoto K
  Title
An intronic SNP in a RUNX1 binding site of SLC22A4, encoding an organic cation transporter, is associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  Journal
Nat Genet 35:341-8 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/ng1267
Reference
  Authors
Dawidowicz K, Allanore Y, Guedj M, Pierlot C, Bombardieri S, Balsa A, Westhovens R, Barrera P, Alves H, Teixeira VH, Petit-Teixeira E, van de Putte L, van Riel P, Prum B, Bardin T, Meyer O, Cornelis F, Dieude P
  Title
The interferon regulatory factor 5 gene confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and influences its erosive phenotype.
  Journal
Ann Rheum Dis 70:117-21 (2011)
DOI:10.1136/ard.2010.129171
Reference
  Authors
Begovich AB, Carlton VE, Honigberg LA, Schrodi SJ, Chokkalingam AP, Alexander HC, Ardlie KG, Huang Q, Smith AM, Spoerke JM, Conn MT, Chang M, Chang SY, Saiki RK, Catanese JJ, Leong DU, Garcia VE, McAllister LB, Jeffery DA, Lee AT, Batliwalla F, Remmers E, Criswell LA, Seldin MF, Kastner DL, Amos CI, Sninsky JJ, Gregersen PK
  Title
A missense single-nucleotide polymorphism in a gene encoding a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) is associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  Journal
Am J Hum Genet 75:330-7 (2004)
DOI:10.1086/422827
Reference
  Authors
Marinou I, Healy J, Mewar D, Moore DJ, Dickson MC, Binks MH, Montgomery DS, Walters K, Wilson AG
  Title
Association of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 genotypes with radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis is dependent on autoantibody status.
  Journal
Arthritis Rheum 56:2549-56 (2007)
DOI:10.1002/art.22814
Reference
  Authors
Swanberg M, Lidman O, Padyukov L, Eriksson P, Akesson E, Jagodic M, Lobell A, Khademi M, Borjesson O, Lindgren CM, Lundman P, Brookes AJ, Kere J, Luthman H, Alfredsson L, Hillert J, Klareskog L, Hamsten A, Piehl F, Olsson T
  Title
MHC2TA is associated with differential MHC molecule expression and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and myocardial infarction.
  Journal
Nat Genet 37:486-94 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/ng1544
Reference
  Authors
Okamoto K, Makino S, Yoshikawa Y, Takaki A, Nagatsuka Y, Ota M, Tamiya G, Kimura A, Bahram S, Inoko H
  Title
Identification of I kappa BL as the second major histocompatibility complex-linked susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis.
  Journal
Am J Hum Genet 72:303-12 (2003)
DOI:10.1086/346067
Reference
  Authors
Suzuki A, Yamada R, Kochi Y, Sawada T, Okada Y, Matsuda K, Kamatani Y, Mori M, Shimane K, Hirabayashi Y, Takahashi A, Tsunoda T, Miyatake A, Kubo M, Kamatani N, Nakamura Y, Yamamoto K
  Title
Functional SNPs in CD244 increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in a Japanese population.
  Journal
Nat Genet 40:1224-9 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/ng.205
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