KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05214Help
Entry
ko05214                     Pathway                                

Name
Glioma
Description
Gliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), mixtures of various glial cells (for example,oligoastrocytomas) and ependymal cells (ependymomas). The most malignant form of infiltrating astrocytoma - glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) - is one of the most aggressive human cancers. GBM may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma). Primary glioblastomas develop in older patients and typically show genetic alterations (EGFR amplification, p16/INK4a deletion, and PTEN mutations) at frequencies of 24-34%. Secondary glioblastomas develop in younger patients and frequently show overexpression of PDGF and CDK4 as well as p53 mutations (65%) and loss of Rb playing major roles in such transformations. Loss of PTEN has been implicated in both pathways, although it is much more common in the pathogenesis of primary GBM.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancer: specific types
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko05214  Glioma
ko05214

Ortholog table
Disease
H00042  Glioma
Orthology
K04357  epidermal growth factor
K08774  transforming growth factor, alpha
K04361  epidermal growth factor receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K04359  platelet-derived growth factor subunit A
K17386  platelet-derived growth factor subunit B
K04363  platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05089  platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05459  insulin-like growth factor 1
K05087  insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K01116  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, gamma-1 [EC:3.1.4.11]
K05859  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, gamma-2 [EC:3.1.4.11]
K02183  calmodulin
K08794  calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I [EC:2.7.11.17]
K04515  calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II [EC:2.7.11.17]
K05869  calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV [EC:2.7.11.17]
K02677  classical protein kinase C alpha type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K19662  classical protein kinase C beta type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K19663  classical protein kinase C gamma type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K06279  SHC-transforming protein 1
K17447  SHC-transforming protein 2
K17448  SHC-transforming protein 3
K17449  SHC-transforming protein 4
K04364  growth factor receptor-binding protein 2
K03099  son of sevenless
K02833  GTPase HRas
K07827  GTPase KRas
K07828  GTPase NRas
K08845  A-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04365  B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04366  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04368  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04369  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04371  mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:2.7.11.24]
K00922  phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha/beta/delta [EC:2.7.1.153]
K02649  phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha/beta/delta
K04456  RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K07203  serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [EC:2.7.11.1]
K01110  phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN [EC:3.1.3.16 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.67]
K06621  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A
K06643  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 [EC:2.3.2.27]
K04451  tumor protein p53
K06625  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A
K04503  G1/S-specific cyclin-D1
K02089  cyclin-dependent kinase 4 [EC:2.7.11.22]
K02091  cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [EC:2.7.11.22]
K06618  retinoblastoma-associated protein
K17454  transcription factor E2F1
K09389  transcription factor E2F2
K06620  transcription factor E2F3
K04402  growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein
K02159  apoptosis regulator BAX
K14021  Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer
K10140  DNA damage-binding protein 2
K03511  DNA polymerase kappa [EC:2.7.7.7]
Compound
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Soni D, King JA, Kaye AH, Hovens CM.
  Title
Genetics of glioblastoma multiforme: mitogenic signaling and cell cycle pathways converge.
  Journal
J Clin Neurosci 12:1-5 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2004.04.001
Reference
  Authors
Zhu Y, Parada LF.
  Title
The molecular and genetic basis of neurological tumours.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 2:616-26 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrc866
Reference
  Authors
Holland EC.
  Title
Gliomagenesis: genetic alterations and mouse models.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 2:120-9 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35052535
Reference
  Authors
Bansal K, Liang ML, Rutka JT.
  Title
Molecular biology of human gliomas.
  Journal
Technol Cancer Res Treat 5:185-94 (2006)
DOI:10.1177/153303460600500302
Reference
(Japanese)
  Authors
Tabuchi K (ed).
  Title
[Gliomas: Research and therapy] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Springer-Verlag Tokyo (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Kapoor GS, O'Rourke DM.
  Title
Mitogenic signaling cascades in glial tumors.
  Journal
Neurosurgery 52:1425-34; discussion 1434-5 (2003)
DOI:10.1227/01.NEU.0000065135.28143.39
Reference
  Authors
Hulleman E, Helin K.
  Title
Molecular mechanisms in gliomagenesis.
  Journal
Adv Cancer Res 94:1-27 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/S0065-230X(05)94001-3
Reference
  Authors
Schlessinger J.
  Title
Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases.
  Journal
Cell 103:211-25 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00114-8
Reference
PMID:9643506
  Authors
Ng HK, Lam PY.
  Title
The molecular genetics of central nervous system tumors.
  Journal
Pathology 30:196-202 (1998)
DOI:10.1080/00313029800169236
Reference
  Authors
Knobbe CB, Merlo A, Reifenberger G.
  Title
Pten signaling in gliomas.
  Journal
Neuro-oncol 4:196-211 (2002)
DOI:10.1093/neuonc/4.3.196
Related
pathway
ko04010  MAPK signaling pathway
ko04012  ErbB signaling pathway
ko04020  Calcium signaling pathway
ko04060  Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
ko04110  Cell cycle
ko04115  p53 signaling pathway
ko04150  mTOR signaling pathway
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