KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04110
ko04110                     Pathway                                
Cell cycle
Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic CDK subunit and an activating cyclin subunit. CDKs regulate the cell's progression through the phases of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of key substrates. Downstream targets of CDKs include transcription factor E2F and its regulator Rb. Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. Cyclin-CDK inhibitors (CKIs), such as p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b, p27Kip1, and p21Cip1, are involved in the negative regulation of CDK activities, thus providing a pathway through which the cell cycle is negatively regulated.
 Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA damage by activating signaling pathways that promote cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. In response to DNA damage, the checkpoint kinase ATM phosphorylates and activates Chk2, which in turn directly phosphorylates and activates p53 tumor suppressor protein. p53 and its transcriptional targets play an important role in both G1 and G2 checkpoints. ATR-Chk1-mediated protein degradation of Cdc25A protein phosphatase is also a mechanism conferring intra-S-phase checkpoint activation.
Cellular Processes; Cell growth and death
Pathway map
ko04110  Cell cycle

Other DBs
GO: 0000278
K04503  G1/S-specific cyclin-D1
K10151  G1/S-specific cyclin-D2
K10152  G1/S-specific cyclin-D3
K02089  cyclin-dependent kinase 4 [EC:]
K02091  cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [EC:]
K06618  retinoblastoma-associated protein
K04681  retinoblastoma-like protein 1
K16332  retinoblastoma-like protein 2
K06619  abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 1 [EC:]
K06067  histone deacetylase 1/2 [EC:]
K17454  transcription factor E2F1
K09389  transcription factor E2F2
K06620  transcription factor E2F3
K04682  transcription factor E2F4/5
K04683  transcription factor Dp-1
K09392  transcription factor Dp-2
K03083  glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [EC:]
K13375  transforming growth factor beta-1
K13376  transforming growth factor beta-2
K13377  transforming growth factor beta-3
K04500  mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2
K23605  mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3
K04501  mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4
K04377  Myc proto-oncogene protein
K10500  zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 17
K06621  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A
K04685  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B
K06622  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C
K06623  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D
K06624  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B
K09993  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C
K06625  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A
K06626  G1/S-specific cyclin-E1
K02206  cyclin-dependent kinase 2 [EC:]
K03094  S-phase kinase-associated protein 1
K03347  cullin 1
K03868  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RBX1 [EC:]
K03875  F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 1 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2)
K06627  cyclin-A
K02213  cell division control protein 6
K10727  chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1
K02603  origin recognition complex subunit 1
K02604  origin recognition complex subunit 2
K02605  origin recognition complex subunit 3
K02606  origin recognition complex subunit 4
K02607  origin recognition complex subunit 5
K02608  origin recognition complex subunit 6
K02540  DNA replication licensing factor MCM2 [EC:]
K02541  DNA replication licensing factor MCM3 [EC:]
K02212  DNA replication licensing factor MCM4 [EC:]
K02209  DNA replication licensing factor MCM5 [EC:]
K02542  DNA replication licensing factor MCM6 [EC:]
K02210  DNA replication licensing factor MCM7 [EC:]
K06628  cell division control protein 45
K26117  Treslin
K26116  Mdm2-binding protein
K02214  cell division control protein 7 [EC:]
K06629  protein DBF4
K02087  cyclin-dependent kinase 1 [EC:]
K05868  G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1
K21770  G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2
K21771  G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B3
K05866  M-phase inducer phosphatase 2 [EC:]
K05867  M-phase inducer phosphatase 3 [EC:]
K16197  14-3-3 protein beta/theta/zeta
K06630  14-3-3 protein epsilon
K16198  14-3-3 protein gamma/eta
K06631  polo-like kinase 1 [EC:]
K06632  wee1-like protein kinase [EC:]
K06633  membrane-associated tyrosine- and threonine-specific cdc2-inhibitory kinase [EC:]
K06634  cyclin H
K02202  cyclin-dependent kinase 7 [EC:]
K03348  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1
K03349  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 2
K03350  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 3
K03351  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4
K03352  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5
K03353  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 6
K03354  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7
K03355  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 8
K03357  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 10
K03358  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 11
K03359  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 12
K12456  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 13
K25228  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 15
K25229  anaphase-promoting complex subunit 16
K03363  cell division cycle 20, cofactor of APC complex
K06635  securin
K02365  separase [EC:]
K06636  structural maintenance of chromosome 1
K06669  structural maintenance of chromosome 3 (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 6)
K06670  cohesin complex subunit SCC1
K06671  cohesin complex subunit SA-1/2
K10779  transcriptional regulator ATRX
K11273  chromosome transmission fidelity protein 1 [EC:]
K06672  cohesin loading factor subunit SCC2
K11266  MAternally affected uncoordination
K11405  histone deacetylase 8 [EC:]
K11268  N-acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.-]
K11267  sister chromatid cohesion protein PDS5
K25163  wings apart-like protein
K17390  sororin
K11479  aurora kinase B [EC:]
K11580  shugoshin-like 1
K04382  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit [EC:]
K03456  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A
K11584  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'
K11547  kinetochore protein NDC80
K11542  protein CASC5
K08866  serine/threonine-protein kinase TTK/MPS1 [EC:]
K06679  mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD1
K02537  mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2
K13728  mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2B
K06637  mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase BUB1 beta [EC:]
K02180  cell cycle arrest protein BUB3
K02178  checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:]
K22399  pachytene checkpoint protein 2
K26093  MAD2L1-binding protein
K03364  cell division cycle 20-like protein 1, cofactor of APC complex
K10292  F-box protein 5
K06639  cell division cycle 14 [EC:]
K04498  E1A/CREB-binding protein [EC:]
K06642  DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit [EC:]
K06640  serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR [EC:]
K04728  serine-protein kinase ATM [EC:]
K06643  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 [EC:]
K04451  tumor protein p53
K04402  growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein
K04802  proliferating cell nuclear antigen
K06644  stratifin
K02216  serine/threonine-protein kinase CHEK1 [EC:]
K06641  serine/threonine-protein kinase CHEK2 [EC:]
K06645  M-phase inducer phosphatase 1 [EC:]
Matsuoka S, Yamaguchi M, Matsukage A
D-type cyclin-binding regions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
J Biol Chem 269:11030-6 (1994)
Welch PJ, Wang JY
A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl tyrosine kinase in the cell cycle.
Cell 75:779-90 (1993)
Macaluso M, Montanari M, Giordano A
Rb family proteins as modulators of gene expression and new aspects regarding the interaction with chromatin remodeling enzymes.
Oncogene 25:5263-7 (2006)
Cobrinik D
Pocket proteins and cell cycle control.
Oncogene 24:2796-809 (2005)
Boutros R, Lobjois V, Ducommun B
CDC25 phosphatases in cancer cells: key players? Good targets?
Nat Rev Cancer 7:495-507 (2007)
Diehl JA, Cheng M, Roussel MF, Sherr CJ
Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta regulates cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization.
Genes Dev 12:3499-511 (1998)
Klein EA, Assoian RK
Transcriptional regulation of the cyclin D1 gene at a glance.
J Cell Sci 121:3853-7 (2008)
Sherr CJ, Roberts JM
CDK inhibitors: positive and negative regulators of G1-phase progression.
Genes Dev 13:1501-12 (1999)
Shi Y, Massague J.
Mechanisms of TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus.
Cell 113:685-700 (2003)
Kamura T, Hara T, Kotoshiba S, Yada M, Ishida N, Imaki H, Hatakeyama S, Nakayama K, Nakayama KI
Degradation of p57Kip2 mediated by SCFSkp2-dependent ubiquitylation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10231-6 (2003)
Bond M, Sala-Newby GB, Wu YJ, Newby AC
Biphasic effect of p21Cip1 on smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of PI 3-kinase and Skp2-mediated degradation.
Cardiovasc Res 69:198-206 (2006)
Harris SL, Levine AJ.
The p53 pathway: positive and negative feedback loops.
Oncogene 24:2899-908 (2005)
Vogelstein B, Lane D, Levine AJ
Surfing the p53 network.
Nature 408:307-10 (2000)
Smith ML, Chen IT, Zhan Q, Bae I, Chen CY, Gilmer TM, Kastan MB, O'Connor PM, Fornace AJ Jr
Interaction of the p53-regulated protein Gadd45 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
Science 266:1376-80 (1994)
Petersen BO, Lukas J, Sorensen CS, Bartek J, Helin K
Phosphorylation of mammalian CDC6 by cyclin A/CDK2 regulates its subcellular localization.
EMBO J 18:396-410 (1999)
Sheu YJ, Stillman B
Cdc7-Dbf4 phosphorylates MCM proteins via a docking site-mediated mechanism to promote S phase progression.
Mol Cell 24:101-13 (2006)
Martinez AM, Afshar M, Martin F, Cavadore JC, Labbe JC, Doree M
Dual phosphorylation of the T-loop in cdk7: its role in controlling cyclin H binding and CAK activity.
EMBO J 16:343-54 (1997)
Lolli G, Johnson LN
CAK-Cyclin-dependent Activating Kinase: a key kinase in cell cycle control and a target for drugs?
Cell Cycle 4:572-7 (2005)
Musacchio A, Salmon ED
The spindle-assembly checkpoint in space and time.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8:379-93 (2007)
Uhlmann F
Chromosome cohesion and separation: from men and molecules.
Curr Biol 13:R104-14 (2003)
Stegmeier F, Amon A
Closing mitosis: the functions of the Cdc14 phosphatase and its regulation.
Annu Rev Genet 38:203-32 (2004)
Moustakas A, Kardassis D
Regulation of the human p21/WAF1/Cip1 promoter in hepatic cells by functional interactions between Sp1 and Smad family members.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:6733-8 (1998)
de Boer HR, Guerrero Llobet S, van Vugt MA
Controlling the response to DNA damage by the APC/C-Cdh1.
Cell Mol Life Sci 73:949-60 (2016)
Qiao X, Zhang L, Gamper AM, Fujita T, Wan Y
APC/C-Cdh1: from cell cycle to cellular differentiation and genomic integrity.
Cell Cycle 9:3904-12 (2010)
ko03030  DNA replication
ko04010  MAPK signaling pathway
ko04120  Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis
ko04210  Apoptosis

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