KEGG   DISEASE: HIV infection
H01563                      Disease                                
HIV infection
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Two types of HIV has been characterized. HIV-1 is the most virulent and pathogenic strain. Worldwide, the predominant virus is HIV-1. The relatively uncommon HIV-2 type is concentrated in West Africa and is rarely found elsewhere. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood, semen, and breast milk. The identification of HIV as the causative agent of AIDS catalyzed efforts to develop antiviral agents. The licenced anti-HIV drugs fall into some categories: reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs), integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), and coreceptor inhibitors. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as the standard of care for the treatment of HIV infection was seminal in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection and progression to AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy dramatically suppresses HIV replication and reduces the plasma HIV-1 viral load, resulting in significant reconstitution of the immune system. Genetic susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS progression is variable among individuals and populations, and in part genetically determined. Genetic variants of genes encoding HIV co-receptors and their chemokine ligands have been described, and some of these variants were associated with resistance to HIV infection and/or disease progression.
Viral infectious disease
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 01 Certain infectious or parasitic diseases
  Human immunodeficiency virus disease
   1C62  Human immunodeficiency virus disease without mention of tuberculosis or malaria
    H01563  HIV infection
Pathway-based classification of diseases [BR:br08402]
 Signal transduction
  nt06516  TNF signaling
   H01563  HIV infection
 Cellular process
  nt06524  Apoptosis
   H01563  HIV infection
 Immune system
  nt06517  TLR signaling
   H01563  HIV infection
  nt06520  CGAS-STING signaling
   H01563  HIV infection
  nt06533  Chemokine signaling
   H01563  HIV infection
Genome-based classification of infectious diseases [BR:br08401]
 Viral infections
  Infections caused by ssRNA-RT viruses
   H01563  HIV infection
hsa05170  Human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection
hsa04060  Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
hsa04061  Viral protein interaction with cytokine and cytokine receptor
hsa04062  Chemokine signaling pathway
hsa04620  Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
nt06161 Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)
nt06516 TNF signaling
nt06517 TLR signaling
nt06520 CGAS-STING signaling
nt06524 Apoptosis
nt06533 Chemokine signaling
CCR5 (resistance) [HSA:1234] [KO:K04180]
CCR2 (resistance) [HSA:729230] [KO:K04177]
TLR3 (resistance) [HSA:7098] [KO:K05401]
CXCL12 (resistance) [HSA:6387] [KO:K10031]
CCL2 (resistance) [HSA:6347] [KO:K14624]
CCL3 (resistance) [HSA:6348] [KO:K05408]
CCL11 (resistance) [HSA:6356] [KO:K16597]
IL10 (susceptibility) [HSA:3586] [KO:K05443]
CD209 (susceptibility) [HSA:30835] [KO:K06563]
HLA-C (susceptibility) [HSA:3107] [KO:K06751]
CCL3L1 (susceptibility) [HSA:6349] [KO:K05408]
IFNG (rapid progression) [HSA:3458] [KO:K04687]
CX3CR1 (rapid progression) [HSA:1524] [KO:K04192]
CXCR1 (slow progression) [HSA:3577] [KO:K04175]
IL4R (slow progression) [HSA:3566] [KO:K05071]
CCL5 (delayed/rapid progression) [HSA:6352] [KO:K12499]
KIR3DL1 (delayed/rapid progression) [HSA:3811] [KO:K07980]
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) [GN:T40001]
Human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2) [GN:T40002]
Somatropin [DR:D02691]
Saquinavir mesylate [DR:D01160]
Indinavir sulfate [DR:D00897]
Ritonavir [DR:D00427]
Nelfinavir mesylate [DR:D00899]
Fosamprenavir calcium [DR:D03835]
Atazanavir sulfate [DR:D01276]
Tipranavir [DR:D08605]
Darunavir ethanolate [DR:D06478]
Darunavir propylene glycolate [DR:D12752]
Zidovudine [DR:D00413]
Didanosine [DR:D00296]
Stavudine [DR:D00445]
Lamivudine [DR:D00353]
Abacavir sulfate [DR:D00891]
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [DR:D01982]
Emtricitabine [DR:D01199]
Nevirapine [DR:D00435]
Delavirdine mesylate [DR:D00895]
Efavirenz [DR:D00896]
Etravirine [DR:D04112]
Rilpivirine hydrochloride [DR:D09958]
Doravirine [DR:D10624]
Raltegravir potassium [DR:D07133]
Elvitegravir [DR:D06677]
Dolutegravir sodium [DR:D10113]
Cabotegravir sodium [DR:D10549]
Zidovudine and lamivudine [DR:D07507]
Abacavir sulfate and lamivudine [DR:D08775]
Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil [DR:D02297]
Abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine [DR:D10838]
Lamivudine, nevirapine and zidovudine [DR:D11521]
Efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil [DR:D10851]
Rilpivirine hydrochloride, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine [DR:D10571]
Elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil [DR:D10756]
Lopinavir and ritonavir [DR:D02498]
Efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [DR:D11392]
Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil [DR:D11395]
Dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine [DR:D10600]
Darunavir and cobicistat [DR:D10832]
Atazanavir and cobicistat [DR:D10753]
Emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide [DR:D10835]
Elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide [DR:D10755]
Emtricitabine, rilpivirine and tenofovir alafenamide [DR:D10836]
Bictegravir, emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide [DR:D11039]
Dolutegravir sodium and rilpivirine hydrochloride [DR:D11282]
Darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide [DR:D11382]
Doravirine, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil [DR:D11396]
Dolutegravir and lamivudine [DR:D11522]
Enfuvirtide [DR:D02499]
Maraviroc [DR:D06670] (CCR5-tropic)
Ibalizumab [DR:D09575]
Fostemsavir tromethamine [DR:D10708]
Lenacapavir sodium [DR:D12162]
Cobicistat [DR:D09881]
Cabotegravir and rilpivirine [DR:D11966]
See also H00406 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Other DBs
ICD-11: 1C62
ICD-10: B24
MeSH: D015658
OMIM: 609423
Yousaf MZ, Zia S, Babar ME, Ashfaq UA
The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan.
Virol J 8:401 (2011)
PMID:20149939 (CCR5)
An P, Winkler CA
Host genes associated with HIV/AIDS: advances in gene discovery.
Trends Genet 26:119-31 (2010)
PMID:16978874 (CCR5, CCR2, CX3CR1, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL12)
Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Parmentier M
Genetics of resistance to HIV infection: Role of co-receptors and co-receptor ligands.
Semin Immunol 18:387-403 (2006)
PMID:15167933 (CCR5, CCR2, CCL5, CXCL12, CXCR6, CCL2, CCL7. CCL11, IL10)
O'Brien SJ, Nelson GW
Human genes that limit AIDS.
Nat Genet 36:565-74 (2004)
PMID:22174453 (TLR3)
Sironi M, Biasin M, Cagliani R, Forni D, De Luca M, Saulle I, Lo Caputo S, Mazzotta F, Macias J, Pineda JA, Caruz A, Clerici M
A common polymorphism in TLR3 confers natural resistance to HIV-1 infection.
J Immunol 188:818-23 (2012)
PMID:11121048 (IL10)
Shin HD, Winkler C, Stephens JC, Bream J, Young H, Goedert JJ, O'Brien TR, Vlahov D, Buchbinder S, Giorgi J, Rinaldo C, Donfield S, Willoughby A, O'Brien SJ, Smith MW
Genetic restriction of HIV-1 pathogenesis to AIDS by promoter alleles of IL10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:14467-72 (2000)
PMID:15564514 (CD209)
Martin MP, Lederman MM, Hutcheson HB, Goedert JJ, Nelson GW, van Kooyk Y, Detels R, Buchbinder S, Hoots K, Vlahov D, O'Brien SJ, Carrington M
Association of DC-SIGN promoter polymorphism with increased risk for parenteral, but not mucosal, acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.
J Virol 78:14053-6 (2004)
PMID:30128812 (HLA-C)
Bardeskar NS, Chavan V, Ahir-Bist S, Nanavati R, Samant-Mavani P, Mehta P, Mania-Pramanik J
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C and its association with HIV-1 transmission in discordant couple and mother-to-child cohorts.
Immunogenetics 70:633-638 (2018)
PMID:19812560 (CCL3L1)
Urban TJ, Weintrob AC, Fellay J, Colombo S, Shianna KV, Gumbs C, Rotger M, Pelak K, Dang KK, Detels R, Martinson JJ, O'Brien SJ, Letvin NL, McMichael AJ, Haynes BF, Carrington M, Telenti A, Michael NL, Goldstein DB
CCL3L1 and HIV/AIDS susceptibility.
Nat Med 15:1110-2 (2009)
PMID:12854077 (IFNG)
An P, Vlahov D, Margolick JB, Phair J, O'Brien TR, Lautenberger J, O'Brien SJ, Winkler CA
A tumor necrosis factor-alpha-inducible promoter variant of interferon-gamma accelerates CD4+ T cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals.
J Infect Dis 188:228-31 (2003)
PMID:10731151 (CX3CR1)
Faure S, Meyer L, Costagliola D, Vaneensberghe C, Genin E, Autran B, Delfraissy JF, McDermott DH, Murphy PM, Debre P, Theodorou I, Combadiere C
Rapid progression to AIDS in HIV+ individuals with a structural variant of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1.
Science 287:2274-7 (2000)
PMID:17360650 (CXCR1)
Vasilescu A, Terashima Y, Enomoto M, Heath S, Poonpiriya V, Gatanaga H, Do H, Diop G, Hirtzig T, Auewarakul P, Lauhakirti D, Sura T, Charneau P, Marullo S, Therwath A, Oka S, Kanegasaki S, Lathrop M, Matsushima K, Zagury JF, Matsuda F
A haplotype of the human CXCR1 gene protective against rapid disease progression in HIV-1+ patients.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:3354-9 (2007)
PMID:16189667 (IL4R)
Soriano A, Lozano F, Oliva H, Garcia F, Nomdedeu M, De Lazzari E, Rodriguez C, Barrasa A, Lorenzo JI, Del Romero J, Plana M, Miro JM, Gatell JM, Vives J, Gallart T
Polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain gene influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and its progression to AIDS.
Immunogenetics 57:644-54 (2005)
PMID:18976921 (KIR3DL1)
Carrington M, Martin MP, van Bergen J
KIR-HLA intercourse in HIV disease.
Trends Microbiol 16:620-7 (2008)

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