KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05224Help
Entry
ko05224                     Pathway                                

Name
Breast cancer
Description
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence of hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone subtypes) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), include: hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative (luminal A subtype), hormone receptor positive and HER2 positive (luminal B subtype), hormone receptor negative and HER2 positive (HER2 positive), and hormone receptor negative and HER2 negative (basal-like or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs)). Hormone receptor positive breast cancers are largely driven by the estrogen/ER pathway. In HER2 positive breast tumours, HER2 activates the PI3K/AKT and the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways, and stimulate cell growth, survival and differentiation. In patients suffering from TNBC, the deregulation of various signalling pathways (Notch and Wnt/beta-catenin), EGFR protein have been confirmed. In the case of breast cancer only 8% of all cancers are hereditary, a phenomenon linked to genetic changes in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancer: specific types
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko05224  Breast cancer
ko05224

Ortholog table
Disease
H00031  Breast cancer
Orthology
K08550  estrogen receptor alpha
K08551  estrogen receptor beta
K09101  nuclear receptor coactivator 1 [EC:2.3.1.48]
K11256  nuclear receptor coactivator 3 [EC:2.3.1.48]
K04379  proto-oncogene protein c-fos
K04448  transcription factor AP-1
K04684  transcription factor Sp1
K04503  G1/S-specific cyclin-D1
K04377  Myc proto-oncogene protein
K08556  progesterone receptor
K03209  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1
K00408  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4
K05473  tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11
K05083  receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K18496  fibroblast growth factor 1
K18497  fibroblast growth factor 2
K04358  fibroblast growth factor
K22603  fibroblast growth factor 19
K22429  fibroblast growth factor 21
K22428  fibroblast growth factor 23
K04362  fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05459  insulin-like growth factor 1
K05087  insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K04357  epidermal growth factor
K04361  epidermal growth factor receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05091  proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Kit [EC:2.7.10.1]
K06279  SHC-transforming protein 1
K17447  SHC-transforming protein 2
K17448  SHC-transforming protein 3
K17449  SHC-transforming protein 4
K04364  growth factor receptor-binding protein 2
K03099  son of sevenless
K02833  GTPase HRas
K07827  GTPase KRas
K07828  GTPase NRas
K08845  A-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04365  B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04366  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04368  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04369  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04371  mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:2.7.11.24]
K00922  phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha/beta/delta [EC:2.7.1.153]
K02649  phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha/beta/delta
K01110  phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN [EC:3.1.3.16 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.67]
K04456  RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K07203  serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04688  ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta [EC:2.7.11.1]
K06052  jagged-1
K21635  jagged-2
K06051  delta
K02599  Notch 1
K20994  Notch 2
K20995  Notch 3
K20996  Notch 4
K06054  hairy and enhancer of split 1
K06055  hairy and enhancer of split 5
K09091  hairy and enhancer of split related with YRPW motif
K05097  FMS-like tyrosine kinase 4 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K06625  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A
K04469  nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 2
K00182  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 2
K00312  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3
K00444  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5
K00445  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 6
K00572  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7
K00714  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 8
K01064  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 9
K01357  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10
K01384  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 11
K01558  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 16
K02432  frizzled 1/7
K02235  frizzled 2
K02329  frizzled 3
K02354  frizzled 4
K02375  frizzled 5/8
K02376  frizzled 6
K02842  frizzled 9/10
K03068  low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6
K02353  segment polarity protein dishevelled
K03069  frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 1
K03096  frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 2
K03083  glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [EC:2.7.11.26]
K02157  axin 1
K04385  axin 2
K02085  adenomatosis polyposis coli protein
K02105  catenin beta 1
K08957  casein kinase 1, alpha [EC:2.7.11.1]
K02620  transcription factor 7
K04490  transcription factor 7-like 1
K04491  transcription factor 7-like 2
K04492  lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1
K04451  tumor protein p53
K04402  growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein
K02159  apoptosis regulator BAX
K14021  Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer
K10140  DNA damage-binding protein 2
K03511  DNA polymerase kappa [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02089  cyclin-dependent kinase 4 [EC:2.7.11.22]
K02091  cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [EC:2.7.11.22]
K06618  retinoblastoma-associated protein
K17454  transcription factor E2F1
K09389  transcription factor E2F2
K06620  transcription factor E2F3
K10605  breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein [EC:2.3.2.27]
K08775  breast cancer 2 susceptibility protein
Compound
C00410  Progesterone
C00951  Estradiol-17beta
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Zhang MH, Man HT, Zhao XD, Dong N, Ma SL
  Title
Estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer molecular signatures and therapeutic potentials (Review).
  Journal
Biomed Rep 2:41-52 (2014)
DOI:10.3892/br.2013.187
Reference
  Authors
Dai X, Xiang L, Li T, Bai Z
  Title
Cancer Hallmarks, Biomarkers and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.
  Journal
J Cancer 7:1281-94 (2016)
DOI:10.7150/jca.13141
Reference
  Authors
Schnitt SJ
  Title
Classification and prognosis of invasive breast cancer: from morphology to molecular taxonomy.
  Journal
Mod Pathol 23 Suppl 2:S60-4 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2010.33
Reference
  Authors
  Title
Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours.
  Journal
Nature 490:61-70 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/nature11412
Reference
  Authors
Eroles P, Bosch A, Perez-Fidalgo JA, Lluch A
  Title
Molecular biology in breast cancer: intrinsic subtypes and signaling pathways.
  Journal
Cancer Treat Rev 38:698-707 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2011.11.005
Reference
  Authors
Karamouzis MV, Papavassiliou KA, Adamopoulos C, Papavassiliou AG.
  Title
Targeting androgen/estrogen receptors crosstalk in cancer
  Journal
Trends in Cancer 2(1):35-48 (2016)
DOI:10.1016/j.trecan.2015.12.001
Reference
  Authors
Sharp A, Harper-Wynne C.
  Title
Treatment of advanced breast cancer (ABC): the expanding landscape of targeted therapies
  Journal
J Cancer Biol Res 2(1):1036 (2014)
Reference
  Authors
Byler S, Goldgar S, Heerboth S, Leary M, Housman G, Moulton K, Sarkar S
  Title
Genetic and epigenetic aspects of breast cancer progression and therapy.
  Journal
Anticancer Res 34:1071-7 (2014)
Reference
  Authors
Mohamed A, Krajewski K, Cakar B, Ma CX
  Title
Targeted therapy for breast cancer.
  Journal
Am J Pathol 183:1096-112 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.07.005
Reference
  Authors
Ellis MJ, Ding L, Shen D, Luo J, Suman VJ, Wallis JW, Van Tine BA, Hoog J, Goiffon RJ, Goldstein TC, Ng S, Lin L, Crowder R, Snider J, Ballman K, Weber J, Chen K, Koboldt DC, Kandoth C, Schierding WS, McMichael JF, Miller CA, Lu C, Harris CC, McLellan MD, Wendl MC, DeSchryver K, Allred DC, Esserman L, Unzeitig G, Margenthaler J, Babiera GV, Marcom PK, Guenther JM, Leitch M, Hunt K, Olson J, Tao Y, Maher CA, Fulton LL, Fulton RS, Harrison M, Oberkfell B, Du F, Demeter R, Vickery TL, Elhammali A, Piwnica-Worms H, McDonald S, Watson M, Dooling DJ, Ota D, Chang LW, Bose R, Ley TJ, Piwnica-Worms D, Stuart JM, Wilson RK, Mardis ER
  Title
Whole-genome analysis informs breast cancer response to aromatase inhibition.
  Journal
Nature 486:353-60 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/nature11143
Reference
  Authors
Ma CX, Reinert T, Chmielewska I, Ellis MJ
  Title
Mechanisms of aromatase inhibitor resistance.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 15:261-75 (2015)
DOI:10.1038/nrc3920
Reference
  Authors
Butt AJ, McNeil CM, Musgrove EA, Sutherland RL
  Title
Downstream targets of growth factor and oestrogen signalling and endocrine resistance: the potential roles of c-Myc, cyclin D1 and cyclin E.
  Journal
Endocr Relat Cancer 12 Suppl 1:S47-59 (2005)
DOI:10.1677/erc.1.00993
Reference
  Authors
Dasgupta S, Lonard DM, O'Malley BW
  Title
Nuclear receptor coactivators: master regulators of human health and disease.
  Journal
Annu Rev Med 65:279-92 (2014)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-med-051812-145316
Reference
  Authors
Brisken C
  Title
Progesterone signalling in breast cancer: a neglected hormone coming into the limelight.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 13:385-96 (2013)
DOI:10.1038/nrc3518
Reference
  Authors
Scarpin KM, Graham JD, Mote PA, Clarke CL
  Title
Progesterone action in human tissues: regulation by progesterone receptor (PR) isoform expression, nuclear positioning and coregulator expression.
  Journal
Nucl Recept Signal 7:e009 (2009)
DOI:10.1621/nrs.07009
Reference
  Authors
Knutson TP, Lange CA
  Title
Tracking progesterone receptor-mediated actions in breast cancer.
  Journal
Pharmacol Ther 142:114-25 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.11.010
Reference
  Authors
Dittrich A, Gautrey H, Browell D, Tyson-Capper A
  Title
The HER2 Signaling Network in Breast Cancer--Like a Spider in its Web.
  Journal
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 19:253-70 (2014)
DOI:10.1007/s10911-014-9329-5
Reference
  Authors
Higgins MJ, Baselga J
  Title
Targeted therapies for breast cancer.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 121:3797-803 (2011)
DOI:10.1172/JCI57152
Reference
  Authors
Mukohara T
  Title
PI3K mutations in breast cancer: prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  Journal
Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press) 7:111-23 (2015)
DOI:10.2147/BCTT.S60696
Reference
  Authors
Schneider BP, Winer EP, Foulkes WD, Garber J, Perou CM, Richardson A, Sledge GW, Carey LA
  Title
Triple-negative breast cancer: risk factors to potential targets.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 14:8010-8 (2008)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1208
Reference
  Authors
King TD, Suto MJ, Li Y
  Title
The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway: a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of triple negative breast cancer.
  Journal
J Cell Biochem 113:13-8 (2012)
DOI:10.1002/jcb.23350
Reference
  Authors
Brown AM
  Title
Wnt signaling in breast cancer: have we come full circle?
  Journal
Breast Cancer Res 3:351-5 (2001)
DOI:10.1186/bcr321
Reference
  Authors
Geyer FC, Lacroix-Triki M, Savage K, Arnedos M, Lambros MB, MacKay A, Natrajan R, Reis-Filho JS
  Title
beta-Catenin pathway activation in breast cancer is associated with triple-negative phenotype but not with CTNNB1 mutation.
  Journal
Mod Pathol 24:209-31 (2011)
DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2010.205
Reference
  Authors
Al-Hussaini H, Subramanyam D, Reedijk M, Sridhar SS
  Title
Notch signaling pathway as a therapeutic target in breast cancer.
  Journal
Mol Cancer Ther 10:9-15 (2011)
DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0677
Reference
  Authors
Rangel MC, Bertolette D, Castro NP, Klauzinska M, Cuttitta F, Salomon DS
  Title
Developmental signaling pathways regulating mammary stem cells and contributing to the etiology of triple-negative breast cancer.
  Journal
Breast Cancer Res Treat 156:211-26 (2016)
DOI:10.1007/s10549-016-3746-7
Reference
  Authors
Jamdade VS, Sethi N, Mundhe NA, Kumar P, Lahkar M, Sinha N
  Title
Therapeutic targets of triple-negative breast cancer: a review.
  Journal
Br J Pharmacol 172:4228-37 (2015)
DOI:10.1111/bph.13211
Reference
  Authors
Karamboulas C, Ailles L
  Title
Developmental signaling pathways in cancer stem cells of solid tumors.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:2481-95 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.11.008
Reference
  Authors
Ignatiadis M, Sotiriou C
  Title
Luminal breast cancer: from biology to treatment.
  Journal
Nat Rev Clin Oncol 10:494-506 (2013)
DOI:10.1038/nrclinonc.2013.124
Reference
  Authors
Shin SJ, Gong G, Lee HJ, Kang J, Bae YK, Lee A, Cho EY, Lee JS, Suh KS, Lee DW, Jung WH
  Title
Positive expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor is associated with a positive hormone receptor status and a favorable prognosis in breast cancer.
  Journal
J Breast Cancer 17:113-20 (2014)
DOI:10.4048/jbc.2014.17.2.113
Reference
  Authors
Gasco M, Shami S, Crook T
  Title
The p53 pathway in breast cancer.
  Journal
Breast Cancer Res 4:70-6 (2002)
DOI:10.1186/bcr426
Reference
  Authors
Narod SA, Foulkes WD
  Title
BRCA1 and BRCA2: 1994 and beyond.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 4:665-76 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1431
Related
pathway
ko03440  Homologous recombination
ko04010  MAPK signaling pathway
ko04110  Cell cycle
ko04115  p53 signaling pathway
ko04151  PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
ko04310  Wnt signaling pathway
ko04330  Notch signaling pathway
ko04915  Estrogen signaling pathway
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