KEGG   DISEASE: High blood pressure
H01633                      Disease                                
High blood pressure;
Essential hypertension (EHT)
Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA) [DS:H00602]
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome (AME) [DS:H00259]
Gordon syndrome [DS:H00243]
Liddle syndrome [DS:H00242]
High blood pressure (hypertension) is the most frequent classic cardiovascular risk factor and accounts for a large proportion of cardiovascular mortality, the main cause of death worldwide. Hypertension is generally classified as primary (essential) or secondary. Essential hypertension (EHT) is the most common diagnosis in this disease, suggesting that a monocausal etiology has not been identified. However, a number of risk factors associated with EHT have also been identified such as age, sex, demographic, environmental, genetic, and vascular factors. Secondary hypertension generally has an earlier age at onset, no family history, and a clear cause such as a renal or endocrine disorder, or an iatrogenic trigger, such as use of oral contraceptives. Blood pressure is a heritable trait; an estimated 30% of variance in blood pressure relates to genetic factors. Understanding of the genetic architecture of traits has progressed in rare mendelian hypertensive phenotypes, such as Gordon's syndrome and Liddle syndrome (LIDLS).
Cardiovascular disease
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 11 Diseases of the circulatory system
  Hypertensive diseases
   BA00  Essential hypertension
    H01633  High blood pressure
hsa04925  Aldosterone synthesis and secretion
hsa04960  Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption
(EHT) PTGIS [HSA:5740] [KO:K01831]
(EHT) AGTR1 [HSA:185] [KO:K04166]
(EHT) ADD1 [HSA:118] [KO:K18622]
(EHT) AGT [HSA:183] [KO:K09821]
(EHT) ECE1 [HSA:1889] [KO:K01415]
(EHT) CYP3A5 [HSA:1577] [KO:K17690]
(EHT) NOS3 [HSA:4846] [KO:K13242]
(EHT) GNB3 [HSA:2784] [KO:K07825]
NR3C2 [HSA:4306] [KO:K08555]
(GRA) CYP11B2 [HSA:1585] [KO:K07433]
(GRA) CYP11B1 [HSA:1584] [KO:K00497]
(AME) HSD11B2 [HSA:3291] [KO:K00071]
(LIDLS) SCNN1B [HSA:6338] [KO:K04825]
(LIDLS) SCNN1G [HSA:6340] [KO:K04827]
(LIDLS) SCNN1A [HSA:6337] [KO:K04824]
Methyldopa [DR:D00405]
Clonidine hydrochloride [DR:D00604]
Guanfacine hydrochloride [DR:D00606]
Mecamylamine hydrochloride [DR:D00611]
Prazosin hydrochloride [DR:D00609]
Doxazosin mesylate [DR:D00608]
Hydralazine hydrochloride [DR:D01302]
Minoxidil [DR:D00418]
Methyldopa and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10267]
Clonidine and chlorthalidone [DR:D10591]
Hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D00340]
Chlorothiazide [DR:D00519]
Methyclothiazide [DR:D00656]
Chlorthalidone [DR:D00272]
Indapamide [DR:D00345]
Furosemide [DR:D00331]
Torsemide [DR:D00382]
Spironolactone [DR:D00443]
Eplerenone [DR:D01115]
Hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene [DR:D10269]
Spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10270]
Amiloride hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10271]
Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride [DR:D00507]
Diltiazem hydrochloride [DR:D00616]
Pindolol [DR:D00513]
Propranolol hydrochloride [DR:D00483]
Nadolol [DR:D00432]
Metoprolol tartrate [DR:D00601]
Metoprolol succinate [DR:D00635]
Atenolol [DR:D00235]
Acebutolol hydrochloride [DR:D00597]
Betaxolol hydrochloride [DR:D00598]
Bisoprolol fumarate [DR:D00634]
Esmolol hydrochloride [DR:D00644]
Nebivolol hydrochloride [DR:D06622]
Labetalol hydrochloride [DR:D00600]
Carvedilol [DR:D00255]
Carvedilol phosphate [DR:D03415]
Propranolol hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10274]
Nadolol and bendroflumethiazide [DR:D10272]
Metoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10273]
Bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10275]
Atenolol and chlorthalidone [DR:D10592]
Amlodipine besylate [DR:D00615]
Amlodipine benzoate [DR:D11881]
Felodipine [DR:D00319]
Isradipine [DR:D00349]
Nicardipine hydrochloride [DR:D00617]
Nifedipine [DR:D00437]
Nisoldipine [DR:D00618]
Clevidipine [DR:D08892]
Levamlodipine maleate [DR:D11723]
Amlodipine and celecoxib [DR:D11705]
Verapamil hydrochloride [DR:D00619]
Captopril [DR:D00251]
Enalapril maleate [DR:D00621]
Lisinopril [DR:D00362]
Perindopril erbumine [DR:D00624]
Ramipril [DR:D00421]
Quinapril hydrochloride [DR:D00459]
Benazepril hydrochloride [DR:D00620]
Fosinopril sodium [DR:D00622]
Trandolapril [DR:D00383]
Moexipril hydrochloride [DR:D00623]
Captopril and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10276]
Enalapril maleate and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10277]
Hydrochlorothiazide and lisinopril [DR:D10268]
Quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10278]
Benazepril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10279]
Fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10280]
Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10281]
Perindopril and amlodipine [DR:D11581]
Trandolapril and verapamil hydrochloride [DR:D10282]
Amlodipine and benazepril [DR:D11069]
Losartan potassium [DR:D00357]
Eprosartan mesylate [DR:D02082]
Valsartan [DR:D00400]
Irbesartan [DR:D00523]
Candesartan cilexetil [DR:D00626]
Telmisartan [DR:D00627]
Olmesartan medoxomil [DR:D01204]
Azilsartan medoxomil [DR:D08067]
Azilsartan kamedoxomil [DR:D08865]
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D07895]
Eprosartan mesylate and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10283]
Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D09197]
Irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10249]
Candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D09196]
Telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D09219]
Olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10284]
Azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone [DR:D10589]
Valsartan and amlodipine besilate [DR:D09745]
Amlodipine besylate and olmesartan medoxomil [DR:D10285]
Telmisartan and amlodipine besilate [DR:D09743]
Amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10286]
Olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine besylate and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10288]
Nebivolol and valsartan [DR:D11388]
Aliskiren fumarate [DR:D06412]
Aliskiren hemifumarate and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10289]
Amlodipine besilate and atorvastatin calcium [DR:D08488]
Terazosin hydrochloride anhydrous [DR:D11585]
Enalaprilat [DR:D03769]
Methyldopate hydrochloride [DR:D04997]
Other DBs
ICD-11: BA00
ICD-10: I10
MeSH: D006973
OMIM: 145500 605115
Poulter NR, Prabhakaran D, Caulfield M
Lancet 386:801-12 (2015)
Singh M, Singh AK, Pandey P, Chandra S, Singh KA, Gambhir IS
Molecular genetics of essential hypertension.
Clin Exp Hypertens 38:268-77 (2016)
Ehret GB, Caulfield MJ
Genes for blood pressure: an opportunity to understand hypertension.
Eur Heart J 34:951-61 (2013)
PMID:12372404 (PTGIS)
Nakayama T, Soma M, Watanabe Y, Hasimu B, Sato M, Aoi N, Kosuge K, Kanmatsuse K, Kokubun S, Marrow JD, Oates JA
Splicing mutation of the prostacyclin synthase gene in a family associated with hypertension.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:1135-9 (2002)
PMID:15042429 (AGTR1)
Kobashi G, Hata A, Ohta K, Yamada H, Kato EH, Minakami H, Fujimoto S, Kondo K
A1166C variant of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene is associated with severe hypertension in pregnancy independently of T235 variant of angiotensinogen gene.
J Hum Genet 49:182-186 (2004)
PMID:10024330 (ADD1)
Manunta P, Burnier M, D'Amico M, Buzzi L, Maillard M, Barlassina C, Lanella G, Cusi D, Bianchi G
Adducin polymorphism affects renal proximal tubule reabsorption in hypertension.
Hypertension 33:694-7 (1999)
PMID:1394429 (AGT)
Jeunemaitre X, Soubrier F, Kotelevtsev YV, Lifton RP, Williams CS, Charru A, Hunt SC, Hopkins PN, Williams RR, Lalouel JM, et al.
Molecular basis of human hypertension: role of angiotensinogen.
Cell 71:169-80 (1992)
PMID:12566389 (ECE1)
Funke-Kaiser H, Reichenberger F, Kopke K, Herrmann SM, Pfeifer J, Orzechowski HD, Zidek W, Paul M, Brand E
Differential binding of transcription factor E2F-2 to the endothelin-converting enzyme-1b promoter affects blood pressure regulation.
Hum Mol Genet 12:423-33 (2003)
PMID:11279519 (CYP3A5)
Kuehl P, Zhang J, Lin Y, Lamba J, Assem M, Schuetz J, Watkins PB, Daly A, Wrighton SA, Hall SD, Maurel P, Relling M, Brimer C, Yasuda K, Venkataramanan R, Strom S, Thummel K, Boguski MS, Schuetz E
Sequence diversity in CYP3A promoters and characterization of the genetic basis of polymorphic CYP3A5 expression.
Nat Genet 27:383-91 (2001)
PMID:11394896 (NOS3)
Jachymova M, Horky K, Bultas J, Kozich V, Jindra A, Peleska J, Martasek P
Association of the Glu298Asp polymorphism in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene with essential hypertension resistant to conventional therapy.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 284:426-30 (2001)
PMID:9425898 (GNB3)
Siffert W, Rosskopf D, Siffert G, Busch S, Moritz A, Erbel R, Sharma AM, Ritz E, Wichmann HE, Jakobs KH, Horsthemke B
Association of a human G-protein beta3 subunit variant with hypertension.
Nat Genet 18:45-8 (1998)
PMID:10884226 (NR3C2)
Geller DS, Farhi A, Pinkerton N, Fradley M, Moritz M, Spitzer A, Meinke G, Tsai FT, Sigler PB, Lifton RP
Activating mineralocorticoid receptor mutation in hypertension exacerbated by pregnancy.
Science 289:119-23 (2000)

» Japanese version

DBGET integrated database retrieval system