KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05010
ko05010                     Pathway                                
Alzheimer disease
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly destroys neurons and causes serious cognitive disability. AD is associated with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Amyloid-beta (Abeta), a major component of senile plaques, has various pathological effects on cell and organelle function. To date genetic studies have revealed four genes that may be linked to autosomal dominant or familial early onset AD (FAD). These four genes include: amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PS1), presenilin 2 (PS2) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE). All mutations associated with APP and PS proteins can lead to an increase in the production of Abeta peptides, specfically the more amyloidogenic form, Abeta42. It was proposed that Abeta form Ca2+ permeable pores and bind to and modulate multiple synaptic proteins, including NMDAR, mGluR5 and VGCC, leading to the overfilling of neurons with calcium ions. Consequently, cellular Ca2+ disruptions will lead to neuronal apoptosis, autophagy deficits, mitochondrial abnormality, defective neurotransmission, impaired synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration in AD. FAD-linked PS1 mutation downregulates the unfolded protein response and leads to vulnerability to ER stress.
Human Diseases; Neurodegenerative disease
Pathway map
ko05010  Alzheimer disease

H00056  Alzheimer disease
K06704  disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 [EC:]
K06059  disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 [EC:]
K04520  amyloid beta A4 protein
K04532  NEDD8-activating enzyme E1 regulatory subunit
K04529  amyloid beta A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 1
K00134  glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (phosphorylating) [EC:]
K04521  beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (memapsin 2) [EC:]
K07747  beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2 (memapsin 1) [EC:]
K20723  reticulon-3
K20720  reticulon-4
K06170  presenilin enhancer 2
K04505  presenilin 1 [EC:3.4.23.-]
K04522  presenilin 2 [EC:3.4.23.-]
K06171  nicastrin
K06172  gamma-secretase subunit APH-1
K01408  insulysin [EC:]
K01389  neprilysin [EC:]
K04380  microtubule-associated protein tau
K03878  NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1 [EC:]
K03879  NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2 [EC:]
K03880  NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 3 [EC:]
K03881  NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4 [EC:]
K03882  NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4L [EC:]
K03883  NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5 [EC:]
K03884  NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 6 [EC:]
K03942  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 1 [EC:]
K03943  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 2 [EC:]
K03944  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 3
K03945  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 1
K03946  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2
K03947  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3
K03948  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4
K03949  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 5
K03950  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 6
K03951  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 7
K03952  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8
K03953  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9
K03954  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10
K03955  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha/beta subcomplex 1, acyl-carrier protein
K03956  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 11
K11352  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 12
K11353  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13
K03957  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 1
K03958  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2
K03959  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 3
K03960  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 4
K03961  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 5
K03962  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 6
K03963  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 7
K03964  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 8
K03965  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 9
K03966  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 10
K11351  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 11
K03934  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1 [EC:]
K03935  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 2 [EC:]
K03936  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 3 [EC:]
K03937  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4
K03938  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 5
K03939  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 6
K03940  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 7 [EC:]
K03941  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8 [EC:]
K03967  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 subunit C1
K03968  NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 subunit C2
K00234  succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein subunit [EC:]
K00235  succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) iron-sulfur subunit [EC:]
K00236  succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) cytochrome b560 subunit
K00237  succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) membrane anchor subunit
K00411  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase iron-sulfur subunit [EC:]
K00412  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase cytochrome b subunit
K00413  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c1 subunit
K00414  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core subunit 1
K00415  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core subunit 2
K00416  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 6
K00417  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 7
K00418  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 8
K00419  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 9
K00420  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 10
K02262  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3
K02256  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [EC:]
K02261  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2
K02263  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4
K02264  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5a
K02265  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5b
K02266  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6a
K02267  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6b
K02268  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6c
K02270  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7a
K02271  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7b
K02272  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7c
K02273  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8
K02132  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit alpha
K02133  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit beta [EC:]
K02136  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit gamma
K02134  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit delta
K02135  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit epsilon
K02126  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit a
K02127  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit b
K02128  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit c
K02138  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit d
K02137  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit O
K02131  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit 6
K02125  F-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit 8
K08683  3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase / 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase [EC:]
K05864  peptidyl-prolyl isomerase D [EC:]
K05862  voltage-dependent anion channel protein 1
K15040  voltage-dependent anion channel protein 2
K15041  voltage-dependent anion channel protein 3
K05863  solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4/5/6/31
K09565  peptidyl-prolyl isomerase F (cyclophilin D) [EC:]
K01059  lipoprotein lipase [EC:]
K04524  apolipoprotein E
K04550  low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor)
K04390  tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6
K03158  tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A
K02373  FAS-associated death domain protein
K04398  caspase 8 [EC:]
K04726  BH3 interacting domain death agonist
K02183  calmodulin
K04348  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B catalytic subunit [EC:]
K06268  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B regulatory subunit
K02158  Bcl-2-antagonist of cell death
K08738  cytochrome c
K02084  apoptotic protease-activating factor
K04399  caspase 9 [EC:]
K02187  caspase 3 [EC:]
K04129  muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
K04131  muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
K04133  muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
K04604  metabotropic glutamate receptor 5
K04634  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha
K05858  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, beta [EC:]
K05208  glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1
K05209  glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A
K05210  glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B
K05211  glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C
K05212  glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D
K04850  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1C
K04851  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1D
K04853  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1F
K04857  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1S
K04809  nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-7
K20858  calcium uniporter protein, mitochondrial
K04371  mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:]
K04963  ryanodine receptor 3
K04958  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 1
K04959  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 2
K04960  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 3
K05853  P-type Ca2+ transporter type 2A [EC:]
K09054  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 alpha
K09027  X box-binding protein 1
K04452  DNA damage-inducible transcript 3
K08852  serine/threonine-protein kinase/endoribonuclease IRE1 [EC: 3.1.26.-]
K08860  eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 [EC:]
K03173  TNF receptor-associated factor 2 [EC:]
K04426  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 [EC:]
K04431  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 [EC:]
K04440  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8/9/10 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) [EC:]
K03237  translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1
K04374  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4
K02730  20S proteasome subunit alpha 1 [EC:]
K02726  20S proteasome subunit alpha 2 [EC:]
K02728  20S proteasome subunit alpha 3 [EC:]
K02731  20S proteasome subunit alpha 4 [EC:]
K02729  20S proteasome subunit alpha 5 [EC:]
K02725  20S proteasome subunit alpha 6 [EC:]
K02727  20S proteasome subunit alpha 7 [EC:]
K02738  20S proteasome subunit beta 1 [EC:]
K02739  20S proteasome subunit beta 2 [EC:]
K02735  20S proteasome subunit beta 3 [EC:]
K02734  20S proteasome subunit beta 4 [EC:]
K02737  20S proteasome subunit beta 5 [EC:]
K02732  20S proteasome subunit beta 6 [EC:]
K02736  20S proteasome subunit beta 7 [EC:]
K03061  26S proteasome regulatory subunit T1
K03062  26S proteasome regulatory subunit T2
K03063  26S proteasome regulatory subunit T3
K03064  26S proteasome regulatory subunit T4
K03065  26S proteasome regulatory subunit T5
K03066  26S proteasome regulatory subunit T6
K03028  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N1
K03032  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N2
K03033  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N3
K06693  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N4
K03035  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N5
K03036  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N6
K03037  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N7
K03038  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N8
K03039  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N9
K03029  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N10
K03030  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N11
K03031  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N12
K06691  26S proteasome regulatory subunit N13
K10881  26 proteasome complex subunit DSS1
K04741  caspase 12 [EC:3.4.22.-]
K13240  nitric-oxide synthase, brain [EC:]
K01367  calpain-1 [EC:]
K03853  calpain-2 [EC:]
K11716  cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 1
K14709  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 1/2/3
K14710  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 4
K14711  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 5
K14712  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 6
K14713  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 7
K14714  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 8
K14715  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 9
K14716  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 10
K14717  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 11
K14718  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 12
K14719  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 13
K14720  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 14
K21398  natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 2
K02090  cyclin-dependent kinase 5 [EC:]
K03083  glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [EC:]
K04397  caspase 7 [EC:]
K02165  dickkopf 1/2/4
K03209  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1
K00182  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 2
K00312  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3
K00408  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4
K00444  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5
K00445  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 6
K00572  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7
K00714  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 8
K01064  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 9
K01357  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10
K01384  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 11
K01558  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 16
K02432  frizzled 1/7
K02235  frizzled 2
K02329  frizzled 3
K02354  frizzled 4
K02375  frizzled 5/8
K02376  frizzled 6
K02842  frizzled 9/10
K04690  frizzled
K03068  low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6
K08960  casein kinase 1, epsilon [EC:]
K02353  segment polarity protein dishevelled
K03069  frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 1
K03096  frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 2
K03097  casein kinase II subunit alpha [EC:]
K03115  casein kinase II subunit beta
K02157  axin 1
K04385  axin 2
K02085  adenomatosis polyposis coli protein
K02105  catenin beta 1
K08957  casein kinase 1, alpha [EC:]
K10396  kinesin family member 5
K10407  kinesin light chain
K07374  tubulin alpha
K07375  tubulin beta
K19722  receptor for advanced glycosylation end products
K02833  GTPase HRas
K07827  GTPase KRas
K07828  GTPase NRas
K08845  A-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:]
K04365  B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:]
K04366  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:]
K04368  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:]
K04369  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:]
K08008  NADPH oxidase 1
K21421  NADPH oxidase 2 [EC:1.-.-.-]
K21423  NADPH oxidase 4 [EC:1.6.3.-]
K04735  transcription factor p65
K02580  nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit
K13241  nitric-oxide synthase, inducible [EC:]
K11987  prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [EC:]
K03156  tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 2
K05405  interleukin 6
K04383  interleukin 1 alpha
K04519  interleukin 1 beta
K05453  macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1
K04528  alpha-synuclein
K16195  eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2 [EC:]
K04467  inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha [EC:]
K07209  inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta [EC:]
K07210  inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit gamma
K04526  insulin
K04527  insulin receptor [EC:]
K16172  insulin receptor substrate 1
K07187  insulin receptor substrate 2
K17445  insulin receptor substrate 3
K17446  insulin receptor substrate 4
K02649  phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha/beta/delta
K00922  phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha/beta/delta [EC:]
K04456  RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:]
K07203  serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [EC:]
K21357  serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK1 [EC:]
K08269  serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK2 [EC:]
K19730  autophagy-related protein 101
K08331  autophagy-related protein 13
K17589  RB1-inducible coiled-coil protein 1
K17985  activating molecule in BECN1-regulated autophagy protein 1
K08334  beclin
K08333  phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 4 [EC:]
K17889  beclin 1-associated autophagy-related key regulator
K21246  nuclear receptor-binding factor 2
K00914  phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [EC:]
K17906  autophagy-related protein 2
K17908  autophagy-related protein 18
C00027  Hydrogen peroxide
C00038  Zinc cation
C00070  Copper
C00076  Calcium cation
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00704  Superoxide
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01319  Hg
C04549  1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
C14818  Fe2+
C16514  Amyloid beta protein 40
C16515  Amyloid beta protein 42
C16845  Peroxynitrite
C19610  Manganese(2+)
C21011  [Protein]-N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine
C21012  [Protein]-N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine
C21013  [Protein]-pyrraline
C21014  [Protein]-pentosidine
Dickson DW
Apoptotic mechanisms in Alzheimer neurofibrillary degeneration: cause or effect?
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Takuma K, Yan SS, Stern DM, Yamada K
Mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease.
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Neuronal calcium mishandling and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
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Possible causes of Alzheimer's disease: amyloid fragments, free radicals, and calcium homeostasis.
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Calcium dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease.
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Ion channels in the regulation of apoptosis.
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Dysregulation of Intracellular Calcium Signaling in Alzheimer's Disease.
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Calcium channel blockers and Alzheimer's disease.
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Alzheimer's disease and Abeta toxicity: from top to bottom.
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Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions.
J Clin Neurosci 11:456-67 (2004)
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Presenilin-mediated signal transduction.
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Presenilins: role in calcium homeostasis.
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Presenilins function in ER calcium leak and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.
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Mitochondrial dysfunction in sporadic and genetic Alzheimer's disease.
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APP-BP1 mediates APP-induced apoptosis and DNA synthesis and is increased in Alzheimer's disease brain.
J Cell Biol 163:27-33 (2003)
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March separate, strike together--role of phosphorylated TAU in mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1842:1258-66 (2014)
Strickland MR, Holtzman DM
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: ApoE explains opposing effects of neuronal LRP1.
J Clin Invest 129:969-971 (2019)
Ivins KJ, Thornton PL, Rohn TT, Cotman CW
Neuronal apoptosis induced by beta-amyloid is mediated by caspase-8.
Neurobiol Dis 6:440-9 (1999)
Sushma, Mondal AC
Role of GPCR signaling and calcium dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease.
Mol Cell Neurosci 101:103414 (2019)
Sanz-Blasco S, Valero RA, Rodriguez-Crespo I, Villalobos C, Nunez L
Mitochondrial Ca2+ overload underlies Abeta oligomers neurotoxicity providing an unexpected mechanism of neuroprotection by NSAIDs.
PLoS One 3:e2718 (2008)
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ER calcium and Alzheimer's disease: in a state of flux.
Sci Signal 3:pe10 (2010)
Lee SY, Hwang DY, Kim YK, Lee JW, Shin IC, Oh KW, Lee MK, Lim JS, Yoon DY, Hwang SJ, Hong JT
PS2 mutation increases neuronal cell vulnerability to neurotoxicants through activation of caspase-3 by enhancing of ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium release.
FASEB J 20:151-3 (2006)
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Disturbed activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress transducers by familial Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin-1 mutations.
J Biol Chem 276:43446-54 (2001)
Lane-Donovan C, Herz J
ApoE, ApoE Receptors, and the Synapse in Alzheimer's Disease.
Trends Endocrinol Metab 28:273-284 (2017)
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Reelin: Neurodevelopmental Architect and Homeostatic Regulator of Excitatory Synapses.
J Biol Chem 292:1330-1338 (2017)
Lilja AM, Porras O, Storelli E, Nordberg A, Marutle A
Functional interactions of fibrillar and oligomeric amyloid-beta with alpha7 nicotinic receptors in Alzheimer's disease.
J Alzheimers Dis 23:335-47 (2011)
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Computational identification of potential multitarget treatments for ameliorating the adverse effects of amyloid-beta on synaptic plasticity.
Front Pharmacol 5:85 (2014)
Vargas LM, Cerpa W, Munoz FJ, Zanlungo S, Alvarez AR
Amyloid-beta oligomers synaptotoxicity: The emerging role of EphA4/c-Abl signaling in Alzheimer's disease.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 1864:1148-1159 (2018)
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Oligomeric Abeta-induced synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.
Mol Neurodegener 9:48 (2014)
Palomer E, Buechler J, Salinas PC
Wnt Signaling Deregulation in the Aging and Alzheimer's Brain.
Front Cell Neurosci 13:227 (2019)
Vallee A, Lecarpentier Y
Alzheimer Disease: Crosstalk between the Canonical Wnt/Beta-Catenin Pathway and PPARs Alpha and Gamma.
Front Neurosci 10:459 (2016)
Origlia N, Arancio O, Domenici L, Yan SS
MAPK, beta-amyloid and synaptic dysfunction: the role of RAGE.
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Srikanth V, Maczurek A, Phan T, Steele M, Westcott B, Juskiw D, Munch G
Advanced glycation endproducts and their receptor RAGE in Alzheimer's disease.
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Pigino G, Morfini G, Pelsman A, Mattson MP, Brady ST, Busciglio J
Alzheimer's presenilin 1 mutations impair kinesin-based axonal transport.
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Roy S, Zhang B, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ
Axonal transport defects: a common theme in neurodegenerative diseases.
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Soluble amyloid-beta oligomers as synaptotoxins leading to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.
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How does brain insulin resistance develop in Alzheimer's disease?
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Aberrant insulin signaling in Alzheimer's disease: current knowledge.
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Cell "self-eating" (autophagy) mechanism in Alzheimer's disease.
Mt Sinai J Med 77:59-68 (2010)
ko00190  Oxidative phosphorylation
ko03050  Proteasome
ko04020  Calcium signaling pathway
ko04140  Autophagy - animal
ko04141  Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
ko04210  Apoptosis
ko04310  Wnt signaling pathway
ko04910  Insulin signaling pathway
ko04933  AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications

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