KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05171
ko05171                     Pathway                                
Coronavirus disease - COVID-19
Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory infection that is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar epithelial cells [mainly alveolar epithelial type 2 (AEC2) cells] through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Upon the occupancy of ACE2 by SARS-CoV-2, the increased serum level of free Angiotensin II (Ang II) due to a reduction of ACE2-mediated degradation promotes activation of the NF-kappa B pathway via Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), followed by  interleukin-6 (IL-6) production. SARS-CoV-2 also activates the innate immune system; macrophage stimulation triggers the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, and the "cytokine storm", which results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ failure. The combined effects of complement activation, dysregulated neutrophilia, endothelial injury, and hypercoagulability appear to be intertwined to drive the severe features of COVID-19.
Human Diseases; Infectious disease: viral
Pathway map
ko05171  Coronavirus disease - COVID-19

H02398  COVID-19
D03506  Cinanserin hydrochloride (USAN)
D11472  Remdesivir (JAN/USAN)
D11936  Bamlanivimab (USAN)
D11938  Casirivimab (USAN)
D11939  Imdevimab (USAN)
D11943  Molnupiravir (JAN/USAN)
D11944  Etesevimab (USAN)
D11971  Tozinameran (JAN)
D11993  Tixagevimab (USAN)
D11994  Cilgavimab (USAN)
D12014  Sotrovimab (USAN/INN)
D12114  Elasomeran (JAN)
D12115  COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx1-S [recombinant])
D12129  COVID-19 vaccine (Ad26.COV2-S [recombinant])
D12142  Casirivimab and imdevimab
D12172  Lufotrelvir (USAN)
D12174  Bebtelovimab (USAN)
D12199  Plutavimab (USAN)
D12241  Regdanvimab (INN)
D12244  Nirmatrelvir (JAN/USAN)
D12254  Amubarvimab (USAN)
D12255  Bemnifosbuvir (USAN)
D12260  Bemnifosbuvir sulfate (USAN)
D12262  Tixagevimab and cilgavimab
D12267  Romlusevimab (USAN)
D12302  Beludavimab (USAN)
D12322  Crexavibart (USAN/INN)
D12325  Ogalvibart (USAN/INN)
D12336  SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein vaccine antigen nvx-cov2373
D12353  Ensitrelvir fumarate (USAN)
D12389  Adintrevimab (USAN/INN)
D12406  Ensovibep (INN)
D12470  Gorivitug (USAN/INN)
D12522  Pomotrelvir (USAN/INN)
D12610  Ufrenmeran (JAN/INN)
D12619  Ensitrelvir (USAN/INN)
D12726  Ibuzatrelvir (USAN)
D12738  Zapomeran (JAN/INN)
K25011  SARS coronavirus host translation inhibitor nsp1
K25012  SARS coronavirus non-structural protein 2
K25013  SARS coronavirus non-structural protein 3 [EC:]
K25014  SARS coronavirus non-structural protein 4
K25015  SARS coronavirus 3C-like proteinase [EC:]
K25016  SARS coronavirus non-structural protein 6
K25017  SARS coronavirus non-structural protein 7
K25018  SARS coronavirus non-structural protein 8
K25019  SARS coronavirus non-structural protein 9
K25020  SARS coronavirus non-structural protein 10
K25021  Coronaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase [EC:]
K25022  SARS coronavirus helicase [EC:]
K25023  SARS coronavirus proofreading exoribonuclease [EC:3.1.13.-]
K25024  SARS coronavirus uridylate-specific endoribonuclease
K25025  SARS coronavirus 2'-O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.-]
K24152  SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein
K24151  SARS coronavirus envelope small membrane protein
K24150  SARS coronavirus membrane protein
K24106  SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein
K24579  SARS coronavirus accessory protein 3a
K24580  SARS coronavirus accessory protein 6
K24581  SARS coronavirus accessory protein 7a
K24582  SARS coronavirus accessory protein 7b
K24583  SARS coronavirus accessory protein 8
K24584  SARS coronavirus accessory protein 10
K09633  transmembrane protease serine 2 [EC:]
K09708  angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [EC:]
K06724  neuropilin 1
K01283  peptidyl-dipeptidase A [EC:]
K04303  proto-oncogene Mas
K04166  angiotensin II receptor type 1
K21421  NADPH oxidase 2 [EC:1.-.-.-]
K02580  nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit
K04735  transcription factor p65
K03156  tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 2
K05405  interleukin 6
K04519  interleukin 1 beta
K05406  interleukin 12A
K05425  interleukin 12B
K01394  matrix metalloproteinase-3 (stromelysin 1, progelatinase) [EC:]
K01388  matrix metalloproteinase-1 (interstitial collagenase) [EC:]
K14624  C-C motif chemokine 2
K10030  interleukin 8
K06059  disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 [EC:]
K03158  tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A
K04734  NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha
K02581  NF-kappa-B inhibitor beta
K08523  heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor
K04361  epidermal growth factor receptor [EC:]
K05055  interleukin 6 receptor
K05060  interleukin 6 signal transducer
K11217  Janus kinase 1 [EC:]
K11219  non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase TYK2 [EC:]
K04692  signal transducer and activator of transcription 3
K05429  interleukin 2
K05423  granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
K05427  granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
K12671  C-X-C motif chemokine 10
K02981  small subunit ribosomal protein S2e
K02985  small subunit ribosomal protein S3e
K02984  small subunit ribosomal protein S3Ae
K02987  small subunit ribosomal protein S4e
K02989  small subunit ribosomal protein S5e
K02991  small subunit ribosomal protein S6e
K02993  small subunit ribosomal protein S7e
K02995  small subunit ribosomal protein S8e
K02997  small subunit ribosomal protein S9e
K02947  small subunit ribosomal protein S10e
K02949  small subunit ribosomal protein S11e
K02951  small subunit ribosomal protein S12e
K02953  small subunit ribosomal protein S13e
K02955  small subunit ribosomal protein S14e
K02958  small subunit ribosomal protein S15e
K02957  small subunit ribosomal protein S15Ae
K02960  small subunit ribosomal protein S16e
K02962  small subunit ribosomal protein S17e
K02964  small subunit ribosomal protein S18e
K02966  small subunit ribosomal protein S19e
K02969  small subunit ribosomal protein S20e
K02971  small subunit ribosomal protein S21e
K02973  small subunit ribosomal protein S23e
K02974  small subunit ribosomal protein S24e
K02975  small subunit ribosomal protein S25e
K02976  small subunit ribosomal protein S26e
K02978  small subunit ribosomal protein S27e
K02977  ubiquitin-small subunit ribosomal protein S27Ae
K02979  small subunit ribosomal protein S28e
K02980  small subunit ribosomal protein S29e
K02983  small subunit ribosomal protein S30e
K02998  small subunit ribosomal protein SAe
K02925  large subunit ribosomal protein L3e
K02930  large subunit ribosomal protein L4e
K02932  large subunit ribosomal protein L5e
K02934  large subunit ribosomal protein L6e
K02937  large subunit ribosomal protein L7e
K02936  large subunit ribosomal protein L7Ae
K02938  large subunit ribosomal protein L8e
K02940  large subunit ribosomal protein L9e
K02866  large subunit ribosomal protein L10e
K02865  large subunit ribosomal protein L10Ae
K02868  large subunit ribosomal protein L11e
K02870  large subunit ribosomal protein L12e
K02873  large subunit ribosomal protein L13e
K02872  large subunit ribosomal protein L13Ae
K02875  large subunit ribosomal protein L14e
K02877  large subunit ribosomal protein L15e
K02880  large subunit ribosomal protein L17e
K02883  large subunit ribosomal protein L18e
K02882  large subunit ribosomal protein L18Ae
K02885  large subunit ribosomal protein L19e
K02889  large subunit ribosomal protein L21e
K02891  large subunit ribosomal protein L22e
K02894  large subunit ribosomal protein L23e
K02893  large subunit ribosomal protein L23Ae
K02896  large subunit ribosomal protein L24e
K02898  large subunit ribosomal protein L26e
K02901  large subunit ribosomal protein L27e
K02900  large subunit ribosomal protein L27Ae
K02903  large subunit ribosomal protein L28e
K02905  large subunit ribosomal protein L29e
K02908  large subunit ribosomal protein L30e
K02910  large subunit ribosomal protein L31e
K02912  large subunit ribosomal protein L32e
K02915  large subunit ribosomal protein L34e
K02918  large subunit ribosomal protein L35e
K02917  large subunit ribosomal protein L35Ae
K02920  large subunit ribosomal protein L36e
K02922  large subunit ribosomal protein L37e
K02921  large subunit ribosomal protein L37Ae
K02923  large subunit ribosomal protein L38e
K02924  large subunit ribosomal protein L39e
K02927  ubiquitin-large subunit ribosomal protein L40e
K02928  large subunit ribosomal protein L41e
K02929  large subunit ribosomal protein L44e
K02941  large subunit ribosomal protein LP0
K02942  large subunit ribosomal protein LP1
K02943  large subunit ribosomal protein LP2
K06856  immunoglobulin heavy chain
K06472  low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor II-a
K05855  spleen tyrosine kinase [EC:]
K00922  phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha/beta/delta [EC:]
K02649  phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha/beta/delta
K01116  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, gamma-1 [EC:]
K05859  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, gamma-2 [EC:]
K02677  classical protein kinase C alpha type [EC:]
K19662  classical protein kinase C beta type [EC:]
K19663  classical protein kinase C gamma type [EC:]
K04371  mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:]
K04441  p38 MAP kinase [EC:]
K10159  toll-like receptor 2
K10160  toll-like receptor 4
K04729  myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88
K05404  toll-like receptor 7
K10170  toll-like receptor 8
K04733  interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 [EC:]
K04730  interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 [EC:]
K03175  TNF receptor-associated factor 6 [EC:]
K04427  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 [EC:]
K04404  TAK1-binding protein 2
K04440  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8/9/10 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) [EC:]
K04379  proto-oncogene protein c-fos
K04448  transcription factor AP-1
K04467  inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha [EC:]
K07209  inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta [EC:]
K07210  inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit gamma
K12800  NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3
K01370  caspase 1 [EC:]
K05401  toll-like receptor 3
K12646  ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX58 [EC:]
K12159  ubiquitin cross-reactive protein
K12647  interferon-induced helicase C domain-containing protein 1 [EC:]
K12648  mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein
K03174  TNF receptor-associated factor 3
K07211  inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit epsilon [EC:]
K05410  TANK-binding kinase 1 [EC:]
K05411  interferon regulatory factor 3
K17834  cyclic GMP-AMP synthase [EC:]
K12654  transmembrane protein 173
K05414  interferon alpha
K05415  interferon beta
K05130  interferon receptor 1
K05131  interferon receptor 2
K11220  signal transducer and activator of transcription 1
K11221  signal transducer and activator of transcription 2
K04693  interferon regulatory factor 9
K12968  double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase [EC:]
K14216  2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase [EC:]
K14754  interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx
K16195  eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2 [EC:]
K04010  C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor 1
K04009  C3a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor
K03990  complement component 3
K01335  complement factor B [EC:]
K01334  complement factor D [EC:]
K03994  complement component 5
K03995  complement component 6
K03996  complement component 7
K03997  complement component 8 subunit alpha
K03998  complement component 8 subunit beta
K03999  complement component 8 subunit gamma
K04000  complement component 9
K06496  selectin, platelet
K03900  von Willebrand factor
K03986  complement C1q subcomponent subunit A
K03987  complement C1q subcomponent subunit B
K03988  complement C1q subcomponent subunit C
K01330  complement component 1, r subcomponent [EC:]
K01331  complement component 1, s subcomponent [EC:]
K01332  complement component 2 [EC:]
K03989  complement component 4
K03991  mannose-binding lectin
K03992  mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 [EC:3.4.21.-]
K03993  mannan-binding lectin serine protease 2 [EC:]
K01313  coagulation factor II (thrombin) [EC:]
K03917  coagulation factor XIII A1 polypeptide [EC:]
K03906  coagulation factor XIII B polypeptide
K03903  fibrinogen alpha chain
K03904  fibrinogen beta chain
K03905  fibrinogen gamma chain
C00027  Hydrogen peroxide
C00046  RNA
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00290  Fibrin
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00704  Superoxide
C00873  Angiotensin I
C02135  Angiotensin II
C15850  Angiotensin (1-7)
C20640  Cyclic GMP-AMP
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Innate immunity during SARS-CoV-2: evasion strategies and activation trigger hypoxia and vascular damage.
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Pathological inflammation in patients with COVID-19: a key role for monocytes and macrophages.
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Controversies of renin-angiotensin system inhibition during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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ko03015  mRNA surveillance pathway
ko04144  Endocytosis
ko04270  Vascular smooth muscle contraction
ko04610  Complement and coagulation cascades
ko04611  Platelet activation
ko04613  Neutrophil extracellular trap formation
ko04614  Renin-angiotensin system
ko04620  Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
ko04621  NOD-like receptor signaling pathway
ko04622  RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway
ko04623  Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway
ko04630  JAK-STAT signaling pathway
ko04650  Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
ko04666  Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis
ko04668  TNF signaling pathway
ko04670  Leukocyte transendothelial migration

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