KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04270
hsa04270                    Pathway                                

Vascular smooth muscle contraction - Homo sapiens (human)
The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regulate the blood flow and pressure.
The principal mechanisms that regulate the contractile state of VSMCs are changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c). In response to vasoconstrictor stimuli, Ca2+ is mobilized from intracellular stores and/or the extracellular space to increase [Ca2+]c in VSMCs. The increase in [Ca2+]c, in turn, activates the Ca2+-CaM-MLCK pathway and stimulates MLC20 phosphorylation, leading to myosin-actin interactions and, hence, the development of contractile force. The sensitivity of contractile myofilaments or MLC20 phosphorylation to Ca2+ can be secondarily modulated by other signaling pathways. During receptor stimulation, the contractile force is greatly enhanced by the inhibition of myosin phosphatase. Rho/Rho kinase, PKC, and arachidonic acid have been proposed to play a pivotal role in this enhancement.
The signaling events that mediate relaxation include the removal of a contractile agonist (passive relaxation) and activation of cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling pathways in the continued presence of a contractile agonist (active relaxation). Active relaxation occurs through the inhibition of both Ca2+ mobilization and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in VSMCs.
Organismal Systems; Circulatory system
Pathway map
hsa04270  Vascular smooth muscle contraction

D00045  Adenosine (JAN/USP)
D00076  Noradrenaline (JP18)
D00095  Epinephrine (USP/INN)
D00101  Vasopressin (JP18/USP)
D00106  Epoprostenol (USAN/INN)
D00124  Ephedrine (USP)
D00150  Angiotensin II (INN)
D00227  Aminophylline (USP/INN)
D00255  Carvedilol (JP18/USP/INN)
D00319  Felodipine (JP18/USP/INN)
D00349  Isradipine (USP/INN)
D00357  Losartan potassium (JP18/USP)
D00366  Lypressin (USAN/INN)
D00371  Theophylline (JP18)
D00400  Valsartan (JP18/USP/INN)
D00437  Nifedipine (JP18/USP/INN)
D00438  Nimodipine (USP/INN)
D00485  Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (USP)
D00507  Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride (USP)
D00509  Phentolamine mesylate (USP)
D00511  Phenylephrine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00517  Amyl nitrite (JP18/USP)
D00522  Candesartan (USAN/INN)
D00523  Irbesartan (JP18/USP/INN)
D00528  Caffeine (USP)
D00600  Labetalol hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00607  Guanadrel sulfate (USAN)
D00608  Doxazosin mesylate (USP)
D00609  Prazosin hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00610  Terazosin hydrochloride (USP)
D00615  Amlodipine besylate (USP)
D00616  Diltiazem hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00617  Nicardipine hydrochloride (JP18/USAN)
D00618  Nisoldipine (JAN/USAN/INN)
D00619  Verapamil hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00626  Candesartan cilexetil (JP18/USP)
D00627  Telmisartan (JP18/USP/INN)
D00629  Nitrendipine (JP18/USAN/INN)
D00631  Bepridil hydrochloride (USAN)
D00636  Amiodarone hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D00679  Ergotamine tartrate (JP18/USP)
D00680  Methylergonovine maleate (USP)
D00691  Dyphylline (USP)
D00756  Tetrahydrozoline nitrate (JAN)
D00757  Xylometazoline hydrochloride (USP)
D00996  Epinephrine hydrochloride (JAN)
D00997  Tolazoline hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01017  Dipivefrin hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01019  Metaraminol bitartrate (JAN/USP)
D01020  Methoxamine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01021  Naphazoline nitrate (JP18)
D01022  Oxymetazoline hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01023  Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01024  Tamsulosin hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D01104  Barnidipine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01145  Azelnidipine (JP18/INN)
D01151  Lemildipine (JAN/INN)
D01163  Ergonovine maleate (USP)
D01171  Monatepil maleate (JAN/USAN)
D01173  Cilnidipine (JP18/INN)
D01188  Pimilprost (JAN/INN)
D01204  Olmesartan medoxomil (JP18/USP)
D01224  Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01227  Bosentan (USAN)
D01290  Nicergoline (JP18/USAN/INN)
D01307  Midodrine hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01333  Urapidil (JP18/INN)
D01337  Epoprostenol sodium (JAN/USAN)
D01347  Tramazoline hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01369  Bevantolol hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01385  Ibudilast (JP18/INN)
D01386  Ephedrine hydrochloride (JP18/USP)
D01444  Bunitrolol hydrochloride (JAN)
D01445  Ifenprodil tartrate (JP18)
D01453  Caffeine hydrate (JP18)
D01469  Amosulalol hydrochloride (JP18)
D01551  Beraprost sodium (JP18/USAN)
D01553  Manidipine hydrochloride (JP18)
D01562  Aranidipine (JAN/INN)
D01571  Moxisylyte hydrochloride (JAN)
D01573  Etilefrine hydrochloride (JP18)
D01604  Efonidipine hydrochloride ethanolate (JAN)
D01674  Naftopidil (JP18/INN)
D01691  Nipradilol (JAN/INN)
D01692  Alfuzosin hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01697  Colforsin daropate hydrochloride (JAN)
D01712  Theophylline sodium acetate (JAN)
D01771  Proxyphylline (JAN/INN)
D01810  Nicorandil (JP18/USAN/INN)
D01830  Arotinolol hydrochloride (JP18)
D01840  Fasudil hydrochloride (JAN)
D01849  Lercanidipine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01887  Bunazosin hydrochloride (JP18)
D01908  Nilvadipine (JP18/USAN/INN)
D01922  Pratosartan (JAN/INN)
D01933  Vatanidipine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01952  L-Methylephedrine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01965  Silodosin (JP18/INN)
D01969  Gallopamil hydrochloride (JAN)
D02014  Angiotensin II (USAN)
D02045  Benidipine hydrochloride (JP18)
D02048  Clinprost (JAN/INN)
D02082  Eprosartan mesylate (USAN)
D02109  dl-Methylephedrine hydrochloride (JP18)
D02149  Epinephrine bitartrate (JAN/USP)
D02268  Ergoloid mesylates (USP)
D02349  Dipivefrin (USAN)
D02356  Verapamil (USAN/INN)
D02537  Dronedarone (INN)
D02720  Beraprost (USAN)
D02721  Iloprost (USAN/INN)
D02774  Adrenalone (USAN/INN)
D02910  Amiodarone (USAN/INN)
D02914  Amlodipine maleate (USAN)
D02935  Anaritide acetate (USAN)
D02939  Angiotensin amide (USAN)
D02983  Argipressin tannate (USAN)
D03067  Belfosdil (USAN/INN)
D03115  Fasudil hydrochloride hydrate (JAN)
D03120  Binodenoson (USAN/INN)
D03212  Apadenoson (USAN)
D03328  Carperitide (USAN/INN)
D03415  Carvedilol phosphate (USAN)
D03536  Clentiazem maleate (JAN/USAN)
D03584  Colforsin (USAN/INN)
D03648  Dapiprazole hydrochloride (USAN)
D03655  Darodipine (USAN/INN)
D03830  Diltiazem malate (USAN)
D03887  Domazoline fumarate (USAN)
D03914  Dronedarone hydrochloride (USP)
D03953  Edonentan (USAN)
D04006  Enprofylline (USAN/INN)
D04018  Ephedrine sulfate (USP)
D04040  Eprosartan (USAN/INN)
D04051  Erythrityl tetranitrate (USAN)
D04126  Saralasin acetate (USAN)
D04128  Fandosentan potassium (USAN)
D04137  Felypressin (USAN/INN)
D04184  Fiduxosin hydrochloride (USAN)
D04192  Flindokalner (USAN/INN)
D04193  Flordipine (USAN/INN)
D04243  Forasartan (USAN/INN)
D04531  Indoramin (USAN/INN)
D04532  Indoramin hydrochloride (USAN)
D04657  Lacidipine (USAN/INN)
D05024  Mibefradil dihydrochloride (USAN)
D05147  Nesiritide (USAN/INN)
D05148  Nesiritide citrate (USAN)
D05206  Norepinephrine bitartrate (USP)
D05228  Octodrine (USAN/INN)
D05246  Olmesartan (USAN/INN)
D05395  Pelanserin hydrochloride (USAN)
D05429  Aminophylline hydrate (JP18)
D05442  Perhexiline maleate (USAN)
D05466  Phenylpropanolamine polistirex (USAN)
D05637  Propylhexedrine (USP/INN)
D05648  Pseudoephedrine polistirex (USAN)
D05649  Pseudoephedrine sulfate (USP)
D05711  Regadenoson (USAN)
D05801  Saprisartan potassium (USAN)
D06010  Tasosartan (USAN/INN)
D06103  Theophylline (USP)
D06104  Theophylline sodium glycinate (USP)
D06129  Tiapamil hydrochloride (USAN)
D06213  Treprostinil (JAN/USAN/INN)
D06234  Trimazosin hydrochloride (USAN)
D06380  Zolertine hydrochloride (USAN)
D06394  Dabuzalgron hydrochloride (USAN)
D06672  Terlipressin (USAN/INN)
D07077  Ambrisentan (JAN/INN)
D07097  Isometheptene mucate (USP)
D07124  Alfuzosin (INN)
D07171  Sitaxentan (USAN/INN)
D07185  Fendiline (INN)
D07227  Ornipressin (INN)
D07450  Amlodipine (USP/INN)
D07451  Amosulalol (INN)
D07465  Arotinolol (INN)
D07494  Barnidipine (INN)
D07509  Benidipine (INN)
D07520  Bepridil (INN)
D07538  Bosentan (INN)
D07550  Bunazosin (INN)
D07560  Adrenalone hydrochloride
D07577  Cinaciguat (JAN/INN)
D07603  Caffeine citrate (USP)
D07682  Clazosentan sodium (JAN)
D07775  Dapiprazole (INN)
D07833  Dihydroergocristine mesilate (BAN)
D07834  Dihydroergocristine (BAN)
D07845  Diltiazem (INN)
D07874  Doxazosin (INN)
D07886  Efonidipine (INN)
D07905  Ergometrine (INN)
D07906  Ergotamine (INN)
D07931  Etilefrine (INN)
D07941  Fasudil (INN)
D07943  Fendiline hydrochloride
D08009  Gallopamil (INN)
D08064  Ifenprodil (INN)
D08065  Iloprost tromethamine
D08067  Azilsartan medoxomil (USAN)
D08106  Labetalol (INN)
D08111  Lercanidipine (INN)
D08146  Losartan (INN)
D08155  Manidipine (INN)
D08192  Metaraminol (INN)
D08201  Methoxamine (BAN)
D08206  Methylephedrine (BAN)
D08207  Methylergometrine (INN)
D08212  Trimazosin (INN)
D08217  Mibefradil (INN)
D08220  Midodrine (INN)
D08239  Moxisylyte (INN)
D08253  Naphazoline (INN)
D08270  Nicardipine (INN)
D08271  Nicergoline tartrate
D08284  Norepinephrine hydrochoride
D08322  Oxymetazoline (INN)
D08340  Perhexiline (INN)
D08358  Phenoxybenzamine (INN)
D08362  Phentolamine (INN)
D08365  Phenylephrine (INN)
D08366  Phenylephrine tartrate
D08368  Phenylpropanolamine (INN)
D08411  Prazosin (INN)
D08444  Propylhexedrine hydrochloride
D08449  Pseudoephedrine (INN)
D08517  Sitaxentan sodium (USAN)
D08560  Tamsulosin (INN)
D08569  Terazosin (INN)
D08571  Terlipressin acetate (JAN)
D08578  Tetryzoline (INN)
D08614  Tolazoline (INN)
D08624  Tramazoline (INN)
D08628  Treprostinil monosodium salt
D08662  Urapidil hydrochloride
D08684  Xylometazoline (INN)
D08864  Azilsartan (JAN/USAN/INN)
D08865  Azilsartan kamedoxomil (USAN)
D08892  Clevidipine (USAN/INN)
D08941  Levamlodipine malate (USAN)
D08966  Phenylephrine bitartrate (USP)
D09003  Sonedenoson (USAN)
D09391  Telcagepant (USAN)
D09392  Telcagepant potassium (USAN)
D09572  Riociguat (JAN/USAN/INN)
D09789  Kirenidipine hydrochloride (JAN)
D09794  Norepinephrine hydrochloride (JAN)
D09820  Vasopressin tannate (JAN)
D09833  Levosemotiadil fumarate (JAN)
D09842  dl-Methylephedrine saccharinate (JAN)
D09994  Selexipag (JAN/USAN/INN)
D10063  Cenderitide (USAN)
D10135  Macitentan (JAN/USAN)
D10430  Treprostinil diolamine (USAN)
D10463  Ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate (JAN)
D10556  Fimasartan (INN)
D10628  Esuberaprost (USAN/INN)
D10673  Ubrogepant (USAN/INN)
D10703  Esuberaprost sodium (USAN)
D10725  Ralinepag (USAN/INN)
D10737  Verosudil (USAN/INN)
D10738  Verosudil hydrochloride (USAN)
D10928  Erenumab (USAN/INN)
D10932  Etripamil (USAN/INN)
D11030  Netarsudil (USAN/INN)
D11031  Netarsudil mesylate (USAN)
D11051  Vericiguat (JAN/USAN/INN)
D11102  Tamolarizine hydrochloride (JAN)
D11142  Angiotensin II acetate (USAN)
D11274  Praliciguat (USAN/INN)
D11303  Eptinezumab (USAN)
D11313  Atogepant (USAN)
D11441  Aprocitentan (USAN/INN)
D11446  Esuberaprost potassium (USAN)
D11475  Olinciguat (USAN/INN)
D11585  Terazosin hydrochloride anhydrous
D11630  Aminophylline dihydrate
D11664  Clazosentan (USAN/INN)
D11723  Levamlodipine maleate (USAN)
D11776  Sparsentan (USAN/INN)
D11881  Amlodipine benzoate
D11898  Zavegepant (USAN)
D11899  Zavegepant hydrochloride (USAN)
D11974  Centhaquine (USAN)
D11975  Centhaquine citrate (USAN)
D12005  Treprostinil palmitil (USAN/INN)
Other DBs
GO: 0014829
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
148  ADRA1A; adrenoceptor alpha 1A [KO:K04135]
147  ADRA1B; adrenoceptor alpha 1B [KO:K04136]
146  ADRA1D; adrenoceptor alpha 1D [KO:K04137]
183  AGT; angiotensinogen [KO:K09821]
185  AGTR1; angiotensin II receptor type 1 [KO:K04166]
1906  EDN1; endothelin 1 [KO:K16366]
1907  EDN2; endothelin 2 [KO:K16367]
1908  EDN3; endothelin 3 [KO:K05227]
1909  EDNRA; endothelin receptor type A [KO:K04197]
551  AVP; arginine vasopressin [KO:K05242]
552  AVPR1A; arginine vasopressin receptor 1A [KO:K04226]
553  AVPR1B; arginine vasopressin receptor 1B [KO:K04227]
2776  GNAQ; G protein subunit alpha q [KO:K04634]
2767  GNA11; G protein subunit alpha 11 [KO:K04635]
8399  PLA2G10; phospholipase A2 group X [KO:K01047] [EC:]
26279  PLA2G2D; phospholipase A2 group IID [KO:K01047] [EC:]
30814  PLA2G2E; phospholipase A2 group IIE [KO:K01047] [EC:]
50487  PLA2G3; phospholipase A2 group III [KO:K01047] [EC:]
64600  PLA2G2F; phospholipase A2 group IIF [KO:K01047] [EC:]
81579  PLA2G12A; phospholipase A2 group XIIA [KO:K01047] [EC:]
84647  PLA2G12B; phospholipase A2 group XIIB [KO:K01047] [EC:]
5319  PLA2G1B; phospholipase A2 group IB [KO:K01047] [EC:]
5322  PLA2G5; phospholipase A2 group V [KO:K01047] [EC:]
5320  PLA2G2A; phospholipase A2 group IIA [KO:K01047] [EC:]
391013  PLA2G2C; phospholipase A2 group IIC [KO:K01047] [EC:]
123745  PLA2G4E; phospholipase A2 group IVE [KO:K16342] [EC:]
5321  PLA2G4A; phospholipase A2 group IVA [KO:K16342] [EC:]
8681  JMJD7-PLA2G4B; JMJD7-PLA2G4B readthrough [KO:K16342] [EC:]
100137049  PLA2G4B; phospholipase A2 group IVB [KO:K16342] [EC:]
8605  PLA2G4C; phospholipase A2 group IVC [KO:K16342] [EC:]
283748  PLA2G4D; phospholipase A2 group IVD [KO:K16342] [EC:]
255189  PLA2G4F; phospholipase A2 group IVF [KO:K16342] [EC:]
8398  PLA2G6; phospholipase A2 group VI [KO:K16343] [EC:]
3778  KCNMA1; potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M alpha 1 [KO:K04936]
157855  KCNU1; potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily U member 1 [KO:K05274]
3779  KCNMB1; potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 1 [KO:K04937]
10242  KCNMB2; potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 2 [KO:K04938]
27094  KCNMB3; potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 3 [KO:K04939]
27345  KCNMB4; potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 4 [KO:K04941]
775  CACNA1C; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C [KO:K04850]
776  CACNA1D; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 D [KO:K04851]
778  CACNA1F; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 F [KO:K04853]
779  CACNA1S; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 S [KO:K04857]
810  CALML3; calmodulin like 3 [KO:K02183]
805  CALM2; calmodulin 2 [KO:K02183]
808  CALM3; calmodulin 3 [KO:K02183]
801  CALM1; calmodulin 1 [KO:K02183]
163688  CALML6; calmodulin like 6 [KO:K02183]
51806  CALML5; calmodulin like 5 [KO:K02183]
91860  CALML4; calmodulin like 4 [KO:K02183]
4638  MYLK; myosin light chain kinase [KO:K00907] [EC:]
85366  MYLK2; myosin light chain kinase 2 [KO:K00907] [EC:]
91807  MYLK3; myosin light chain kinase 3 [KO:K00907] [EC:]
340156  MYLK4; myosin light chain kinase family member 4 [KO:K00907] [EC:]
140465  MYL6B; myosin light chain 6B [KO:K12751]
4637  MYL6; myosin light chain 6 [KO:K12751]
10398  MYL9; myosin light chain 9 [KO:K12755]
4627  MYH9; myosin heavy chain 9 [KO:K10352]
4628  MYH10; myosin heavy chain 10 [KO:K10352]
4629  MYH11; myosin heavy chain 11 [KO:K10352]
79784  MYH14; myosin heavy chain 14 [KO:K10352]
23236  PLCB1; phospholipase C beta 1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
5330  PLCB2; phospholipase C beta 2 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
5331  PLCB3; phospholipase C beta 3 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
5332  PLCB4; phospholipase C beta 4 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
3708  ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
3709  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 [KO:K04959]
3710  ITPR3; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
5578  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:]
5579  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta [KO:K19662] [EC:]
5582  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma [KO:K19663] [EC:]
5580  PRKCD; protein kinase C delta [KO:K06068] [EC:]
5581  PRKCE; protein kinase C epsilon [KO:K18050] [EC:]
5583  PRKCH; protein kinase C eta [KO:K18051] [EC:]
5588  PRKCQ; protein kinase C theta [KO:K18052] [EC:]
369  ARAF; A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K08845] [EC:]
673  BRAF; B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04365] [EC:]
5894  RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:]
5604  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:]
5605  MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:]
5594  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
5595  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
800  CALD1; caldesmon 1 [KO:K12327]
59  ACTA2; actin alpha 2, smooth muscle [KO:K12313]
72  ACTG2; actin gamma 2, smooth muscle [KO:K12315]
94274  PPP1R14A; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 14A [KO:K12328]
5499  PPP1CA; protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K06269] [EC:]
5500  PPP1CB; protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K06269] [EC:]
5501  PPP1CC; protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K06269] [EC:]
4659  PPP1R12A; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A [KO:K06270]
4660  PPP1R12B; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12B [KO:K12329]
54776  PPP1R12C; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12C [KO:K17457]
2768  GNA12; G protein subunit alpha 12 [KO:K04346]
10672  GNA13; G protein subunit alpha 13 [KO:K04639]
23365  ARHGEF12; Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 12 [KO:K07532]
9138  ARHGEF1; Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 [KO:K12330]
9826  ARHGEF11; Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 [KO:K12331]
387  RHOA; ras homolog family member A [KO:K04513]
6093  ROCK1; Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 [KO:K04514] [EC:]
9475  ROCK2; Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 [KO:K17388] [EC:]
135  ADORA2A; adenosine A2a receptor [KO:K04266]
136  ADORA2B; adenosine A2b receptor [KO:K04267]
5739  PTGIR; prostaglandin I2 receptor [KO:K04263]
796  CALCA; calcitonin related polypeptide alpha [KO:K12332]
797  CALCB; calcitonin related polypeptide beta [KO:K12332]
133  ADM; adrenomedullin [KO:K12333]
10203  CALCRL; calcitonin receptor like receptor [KO:K04577]
10267  RAMP1; receptor activity modifying protein 1 [KO:K08447]
10266  RAMP2; receptor activity modifying protein 2 [KO:K08448]
10268  RAMP3; receptor activity modifying protein 3 [KO:K08449]
2778  GNAS; GNAS complex locus [KO:K04632]
107  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:]
108  ADCY2; adenylate cyclase 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:]
109  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:]
196883  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:]
111  ADCY5; adenylate cyclase 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:]
112  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase 6 [KO:K08046] [EC:]
113  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase 7 [KO:K08047] [EC:]
114  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase 8 [KO:K08048] [EC:]
115  ADCY9; adenylate cyclase 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:]
5566  PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:]
5567  PRKACB; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:]
5568  PRKACG; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:]
4878  NPPA; natriuretic peptide A [KO:K12334]
4879  NPPB; natriuretic peptide B [KO:K12335]
4881  NPR1; natriuretic peptide receptor 1 [KO:K12323] [EC:]
4880  NPPC; natriuretic peptide C [KO:K12336]
4882  NPR2; natriuretic peptide receptor 2 [KO:K12324] [EC:]
5592  PRKG1; protein kinase cGMP-dependent 1 [KO:K07376] [EC:]
10335  IRAG1; inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor associated 1 [KO:K12337]
2977  GUCY1A2; guanylate cyclase 1 soluble subunit alpha 2 [KO:K12318] [EC:]
2982  GUCY1A1; guanylate cyclase 1 soluble subunit alpha 1 [KO:K12318] [EC:]
2983  GUCY1B1; guanylate cyclase 1 soluble subunit beta 1 [KO:K12319] [EC:]
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00212  Adenosine
C00219  Arachidonate
C00238  Potassium cation
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00547  L-Noradrenaline
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00942  3',5'-Cyclic GMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01312  Prostaglandin I2
C14748  20-HETE
C14768  5,6-EET
C14769  8,9-EET
C14770  11,12-EET
C14771  14,15-EET
Akata T
Cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating vascular tone. Part 2: regulatory mechanisms modulating Ca2+ mobilization and/or myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in vascular smooth muscle cells.
J Anesth 21:232-42 (2007)
Ogut O, Brozovich FV
Regulation of force in vascular smooth muscle.
J Mol Cell Cardiol 35:347-55 (2003)
Hilgers RH, Webb RC
Molecular aspects of arterial smooth muscle contraction: focus on Rho.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 230:829-35 (2005)
Schlossmann J, Feil R, Hofmann F
Signaling through NO and cGMP-dependent protein kinases.
Ann Med 35:21-7 (2003)
Mehta PK, Griendling KK
Angiotensin II cell signaling: physiological and pathological effects in the cardiovascular system.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292:C82-97 (2007)
Kim HR, Appel S, Vetterkind S, Gangopadhyay SS, Morgan KG
Smooth muscle signalling pathways in health and disease.
J Cell Mol Med 12:2165-80 (2008)
Fukata Y, Amano M, Kaibuchi K
Rho-Rho-kinase pathway in smooth muscle contraction and cytoskeletal reorganization of non-muscle cells.
Trends Pharmacol Sci 22:32-9 (2001)
Dimopoulos GJ, Semba S, Kitazawa K, Eto M, Kitazawa T
Ca2+-dependent rapid Ca2+ sensitization of contraction in arterial smooth muscle.
Circ Res 100:121-9 (2007)
Hynynen MM, Khalil RA
The vascular endothelin system in hypertension--recent patents and discoveries.
Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov 1:95-108 (2006)
Brain SD, Grant AD
Vascular actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin.
Physiol Rev 84:903-34 (2004)
Roman RJ
P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid in the control of cardiovascular function.
Physiol Rev 82:131-85 (2002)
Surks HK
cGMP-dependent protein kinase I and smooth muscle relaxation: a tale of two isoforms.
Circ Res 101:1078-80 (2007)
Vanhoutte PM
Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations: the history.
Pharmacol Res 49:503-8 (2004)
Davis MJ, Hill MA
Signaling mechanisms underlying the vascular myogenic response.
Physiol Rev 79:387-423 (1999)
Fleming I.
Cytochrome p450 and vascular homeostasis.
Circ Res 89:753-62 (2001)
Carvajal JA, Germain AM, Huidobro-Toro JP, Weiner CP
Molecular mechanism of cGMP-mediated smooth muscle relaxation.
Ko EA, Han J, Jung ID, Park WS
Physiological roles of K+ channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.
J Smooth Muscle Res 44:65-81 (2008)
Woodard GE, Rosado JA
Natriuretic peptides in vascular physiology and pathology.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 268:59-93 (2008)
Berry C, Touyz R, Dominiczak AF, Webb RC, Johns DG
Angiotensin receptors: signaling, vascular pathophysiology, and interactions with ceramide.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 281:H2337-65 (2001)
Hirano K, Hirano M, Kanaide H
Regulation of myosin phosphorylation and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in vascular smooth muscle.
J Smooth Muscle Res 40:219-36 (2004)
Freeman EJ, Ruehr ML, Dorman RV
ANG II-induced translocation of cytosolic PLA2 to the nucleus in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Am J Physiol 274:C282-8 (1998)
Murphy TV, Spurrell BE, Hill MA
Cellular signalling in arteriolar myogenic constriction: involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation pathways.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29:612-9 (2002)
hsa00590  Arachidonic acid metabolism
hsa04020  Calcium signaling pathway
KO pathway

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